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    The Progress of Desulfurization Technology for Crude Oil
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract3435)      PDF(pc) (132KB)(13648)       Save
    The poor quality of crude oil obviously leads to high sulfur content of oil products, and the technology for desulfurization of crude oil is urgently needed so that the sulfur content in petroleum products could be reduced from the root. This paper describes the progress in technology for desulfurization of crude oil. The present technologies for desulfurization of crude oil include caustic washing, dry gas desulfurization, hydrodesulfurization (HDS), etc. The new combined technologies for desulfurization of crude oil being studied are: biodesulfurization (BDS), hydrogenation-bacterial catalysis, the microwave-catalytic hydrogenation, the BDS-OD-RA desulfurization and oxidative desulfurization in electrostatic fields, and the ultrasonic/microwave-catalytic oxidation applied in our lab, with their development trends being also discussed.
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    Purification of Crude Glycerol from Waste Cooking Oil Based Biodiesel Production by Orthogonal Test Method
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2013, 15 (1): 48-53.  
    Abstract2055)      PDF(pc) (446KB)(10980)       Save
    Purification of original crude glycerol from by-product of biodiesel was conducted on a laboratory scale by using the combined chemical and physical treatments based upon repeated cycles of acidification to the desired pH of 5 using 85% H3 PO4 at 70℃ for 60 min, allowing phase separation and harvesting of the glycerol-rich middle phase. The yield of crude glycerol reached 81.2%. Subsequently, the complex reaction of the harvested glycerol phase occurred by adding 0.03 %( w/w) of sodium oxalate at 80℃ for 30min with the impurity removal rate of 19.8%. The fraction between 164 and 200℃ was collected by vacuum distillation followed by decolorization with 2% of active carbon at 80℃ twice at an acceptable purity of 98.10% (w/w) glycerol.
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    Effects of Preparation Parameters on Paraffin Wax Microemulsion
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2012, 14 (1): 15-19.  
    Abstract1828)      PDF(pc) (953KB)(9850)       Save
    The paraffin wax microemulsion was prepared with 58# paraffin wax, nonionic surfactant and anionic surfactant. The effects of manufacturing parameters on the particle diameter of paraffin wax microemulsion were the quantity of the emulsifier, the temperature and time of emulsification, stir speed, pH and accessory ingredient (cosurfactant). The results showed that the temperature of emulsification had little effect on the particle size of paraffin wax microemulsion in the range of 75-85℃. The other manufacturing parameters all had a great effect on the particle size of paraffin wax microemulsion. Optimum conditions were as follows: w(emulsifier) was 6%, emulsification temperature was 80℃, emulsification time was 40min, pH was about 8, stir speed was 600r/min and the cosurfactant was the n-amyl alcohol. Under this condition, we can prepare the translucent and baby blue paraffin wax emulsion which particle size was 97 nm.
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    Recent Advances in Colloidal Lubricant Detergents
    Wumanjiang ELi ELi
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract2562)      PDF(pc) (161KB)(8994)       Save
    Overbased lubricant detergents are important components in lubricating oil. Recently, a lot of papers about the synthesis mechanism, colloidal structure, acid neutralization and antifriction properties of overbased detergents have been published with the development of experimental techniques, which can help us better understand the process of preparation and application of overbased detergents and propound new strategies for improving various performances of overbased detergents. In the future, the synthesis of environmentally friendly and multi-functional lubricant detergent using biodegradable vegetable oil instead of mineral oil as raw materials will be a primary objective for the colloidal lubricant detergent industry
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    Study toward the Mechanisms of Cyclohexanone Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide under Various Reaction Systems
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2012, 14 (2): 7-17.  
    Abstract2846)      PDF(pc) (724KB)(8541)       Save
    The green and effective Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction of cyclohexanone to prepare ε-Caprolactone is of particular importance in the synthesis of new polymer materials. We have discussed here several mechanism types of cyclohexanone Baeyer-Villiger oxidation with H2O2 in different reaction systems. Five main types have been addressed. 1) Noncatalyzed reaction type, the C=O of ketones is activated by H+, which is electrolytic dissociated from H2O2 and H2O, to improve the capability of C=O group to accept the electron pairs;2)Thermally activated radical reaction type, where the Criegee interminate is produced via two-steps of radical reaction with ·OH attack, with many more hydroxy radicals are excited in the presence of TS-1 zeolite ;3) Br?nsted acid catalysis reaction type, both O-O moiety and C=O group could be activated by Br?nsted acid; 4) Solid Lewis acid catalyzed C=O of the substrate activation reaction type, by enhancing the donor-acceptor interaction between the antibonding π*C=O orbital of cyclohexanone and HOMO of Sn-β zeolite; 5) Solid Lewis acid catalyzed H2O2 to form Me-OOH oxidative species, by employing the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of Ti-OOH becoming a singly occupied molecular orbital(SOMO), with the O-O group highly electrophilic to attack the C=O of cyclohexanone in Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. In the end, we also compare the different mechanisms and give our opinions on the development direction of catalytic materials for eco-friendly Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclohexanone in the years to come.
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    Synthesis of Phenyl Acetate from Phenol and Acetic Anhydride over Synthetic TS-1 Containing Template
    Wu Guowen Shi Chunfeng Lin Min Zhu Bin
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2014, 16 (04): 89-93.  
    Abstract1801)      PDF(pc) (840KB)(7940)       Save
    In this article, phenyl acetate was synthesized from phenol and acetic anhydride over titanium silicalite-1, in which the organic structure-directing agents were immobilized (TS-1-U). The reaction conditions were specified at a phenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:1.2, a catalyst dosage of 6 m%, and a reaction temperature of 70 ℃. A total of 96.5% of phenol was converted to phenyl acetate without producing any byproducts after 2.5 h of reaction. Besides, although the catalyst deactivation is inevitable, TS-1-U could be recycled for at least four times.
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    Characterization of catalytic cracking catalysts regenerated from gasifying deposited coke
    Xiujie Men
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract2420)      PDF(pc) (194KB)(7409)       Save
    Partially or fully regenerated catalytic cracking catalysts were prepared by gasifying the coke deposited on coked catalysts with a gaseous mixture of oxygen and steam in a fixed fluidized bed (FFB). The resultant samples were characterized by different methods such as the nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, the X-ray diffractometry, the infrared spectroscopy, the ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) method, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, the transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), the thermal-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results showed that exposure of catalyst to steam for about 10 minutes at temperature ≥800℃ didn't cause too much destruction of the catalysts, and an amount of coke equating to about 0.27wt% was enough to block approximately all acid sites in micro-pores of the zeolite catalyst. Coke didn't show equal reactivity during coke burning-off that could be accelerated by the catalytic action of nearby metal atoms. However, when the carbon content on the catalyst reached about 2.44wt%, the catalytic action of metals on the catalyst was not evident. The severe thermal and hydrothermal environment during exposure of the catalyst to steam at a temperature in the range of about 860~880℃ for 30 minutes could lead to collapse of pore structure and transformation of crystal phase and consequently decrease the surface area and acid amount on the catalyst.
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    Preparation of Overbased Calcium Alkylbenzene Sulfonate for Complex Sulfonate Grease
    Liu Yinong
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2015, 17 (1): 89-95.  
    Abstract2244)      PDF(pc) (378KB)(7153)       Save
    Six kinds of alkylbenzene sulfonic acids are selected to produce sulfonate S1-S6, and sulfonate S3,S4,S6 could be transformed into grease with good performance in comparison with grease produced from commercial sulfonate T106-1 and T106-2. Optimized synthesis conditions of sulfonate S3,S4,S6 are explored by different dosage of methanol,water and type of copromoters, it has been found that good synthesis conditions of sulfonate S3 covers; dosage of methanol of 16%, dosage of water of 4% and dosage of copromoter A of 2%, good synthesis conditions of sulfonate S4 covers;dosage of methanol of 24%, dosage of water of 4% and dosage of copromoter B of 2%, the optimized synthesis conditions of sulfonate S6 covers; dosage of methanol of 8%, dosage of water of 4% and dosage of copromoter B of 2%. Sulfonate S3,S4,S6 produced by optimization conditions exhibit high TBN, good antiwaer property than previous products. Grease G9,G10,G11 produced by new sulfonate S3,S4,S6 exhibit good grease transformation property, low viscosity, improved water stability and high temperature performance.
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    Influencing Factors of the High-solid Content Silicone Oil Emulsion Particle Size
    Fengyan Li
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract2461)      PDF(pc) (493KB)(7111)       Save
    The Silicone oil emulsion of 60% high-solid content was prepared with methyl silicone oil as main material by emulsifier-in-oil method. The emulsification conditions to the Silicone oil emulsion particle size were discussed. The experimental result showed that the emulsification methods ,the quantity of the emulsifier, the time and temperature of emulsification, emulsifying water dosage and stir speed had significant impact on the particle size. The optimal conditions were identified that the quantity of the emulsifier was 6% , emulsification temperature 70 ℃, emulsification time 30 min, stir speed 1100 r/min, adding emulsification water twice, the ration of each emulsifying dosage was 1:1. The high-solid content silicone oil emulsion with average particle diameter 2.731 μm was prepared under this condition and not stratified and floating oil at the 3 000 r/min by centrifugating 30 min.
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    Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2012, 14 (2): 66-70.  
    Abstract1979)      PDF(pc) (392KB)(7008)       Save
    A bacterial strain of genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inoculated into a hydrocarbon culture medium and incubated for a period of durations. The ability for the bacterial strain to biodegrade the hydrocarbon, viz. n-hexadecane, was evaluated by determining hexadecane concentrations of the inoculated culture medium on a gas chromatography (GC). Effect of pH on degrading ability of the bacterial isolate and impact of temperature on microbial growth were also explored. Results showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectively enhanced biodegradation of n-hexadecane. Furthermore, the ability for Pseudomonas aeruginosa to biodegrade n-hexadecane was different at different pH values. It provided excellent degrading ability at pH 7.0. The microbial cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa increased with increasing incubation durations at the temperatures ranging from 28℃ to 35℃, and a exponential phase of microbial growth was observed.
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    Kinetic Modeling of Methanol to Olefins (MTO) Process on SAPO-34 CatalystSAPO
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2013, 15 (3): 86-90.  
    Abstract1724)      PDF(pc) (523KB)(6952)       Save
    A kinetic model of MTO process over the SAPO-34 catalyst considering the effect of water and coke deposition has been proposed. The model takes into account three steps of the MTO reaction in which the products cover 5 lumped components. The water in the feed not only reduces the concentration of methanol but also alleviates the deactivation of SAPO-34 catalyst. The kinetic parameters have been estimated by the least square method. It has been proved that the calculated values in the kinetic model are in good agreement with the experimental values.
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    Et 3NHCl-AlCl 3 Ionic Liquids as Catalyst for Alkylation of Toluene with 2-Chloro-2-methylpropane
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2013, 15 (1): 54-60.  
    Abstract2037)      PDF(pc) (513KB)(6908)       Save
    Alkylation of toluene with 2-Chloro-2-methylpropane (t-Bu-Cl) to synthesize p-tert-Butyltoluene (PTBT) was performed, which was catalyzed by triethylamine hydrochloride aluminum chloride ionic liquids. Different kinds of ionic liquids were prepared with Et3NHCl and AlCl3, and the effect of the molar ratio between AlCl3 and Et3NHCl, reaction time, reaction temperature, ionic liquid dosage, as well as the molar ratio of toluene to Chloro-2-methylpropane on the alkylation reaction of toluene with Chloro-2-methyl- propane was investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were detected to catalyze the reaction with high conversion of (t-Bu-Cl) and good selectivity for PTBT. Furthermore, the reusability and regeneration of the catalyst were explored.
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    CFD Simulation of Orifice Flow of Orifice-type Liquid Distributor
    Yu Hongfeng Xingang LI Hong SUI Hong LI
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2013, 15 (3): 70-78.  
    Abstract1706)      PDF(pc) (4596KB)(6815)       Save
    In this study, a suitable CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model has been developed to investigate the influence of liquid height on the discharge coefficient of the orifice-type liquid distributors. The orifice flow in different diameters and liquid heights has been realized using the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and the Gamma Theta transition (GTT) model. In the ANSYS CFX software, two models are used in conjunction with an automatic wall treatment which allows for a smooth shift from a wall function (WF) to a low turbulent-Re near wall formulation (LTRW). The results of the model simulation coupled with LTRW are closer to the experimental results compared with the models with WF, indicating that LTRW is more appropriate for the prediction of boundary layer characteristics of orifice flow. Simulation results show that the flow conditions of orifices change with the variation of liquid height. With respect to the turbulence in orifice, the SST model coupled with LTR is recommended. However, with respect to the transition to turbulence in orifice with an increase in liquid height, the predictions of GTT model coupled with LTRW are superior to those obtained using other models.
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    Preparation and Performance of Overbased Complex Sulphonates
    HOU Dian-Guo
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract2267)      PDF(pc) (130KB)(6791)       Save
    Overbased complex sulphonates containing two metals ?sodium and magnesium ?were prepared by using overbased magnesium sulphonate as the starting material. Borated overbased complex sulphonate containing two metals was synthesized by reaction of boric acid with the corresponding sulphonate. The total base number (TBN) of overbased complex sulphonates decreased compared with that of magnesium sulphonate, while TBN of borated overbased complex sulphonate further decreased. The detergency, anti-oxidation and extreme pressure performances of overbased complex sulphonates were improved compared with those of overbased magnesium sulphonate; the anti-oxidation and extreme pressure performances of borated overbased complex sulphonates were further improved whereas its detergency was reduced.
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    Advances in DCC Process and Catalyst for Propylene Production from Heavy Oils
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract2010)      PDF(pc) (324KB)(6691)       Save
    In the past several decades, SINOPEC has devoted continuously to develop DCC technology, the only commercial process using heavy feeds aiming at propylene production. Recently, a series of research breakthrough have been achieved in molecular refining. Based on the detailed analysis in the complex DCC reaction network, an innovative catalyst technology has been developed to Optimize Catalysis Kinetics (OCK in brief). The deep-cracking improve with optimizing the availability of the active sites. The updated MFI and beta zeolites are used to boost the propylene selectivity. The latest generation catalyst DMMC-1 has been applied commercially. Comparing with the best history, Propylene yield of DMMC-1 increases 2.4m%, distribution of products improve. The leading position of DCC has been advanced further.
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    Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of gasoline using vanadium (V)-substituted polyoxometalate/H2O2 /ionic liquid emulsion system
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2012, 14 (1): 25-31.  
    Abstract2073)      PDF(pc) (1287KB)(6686)       Save
    Aiming at deep desulfurization of the gasoline, three amphiphilic catalysts [C18H37N(CH3)3]3+x [PMo12-xVxO40](x=1,2,3) were prepared and characterized. The amphiphilic vanadium (V)-substituted polyoxometalates were dissolved in water-immiscible ionic liquid ([Bmim]PF6) forming a H2O2-in-[Bmim]PF6 emulsion desulfurization system with 30 wt % H2O2 as oxidant. The catalytic oxidation of sulfur-containing model oil has been studied in detail under various reaction conditions using this system. The ionic liquid emulsion system showed high catalytic oxidative activity in the treatment of actual gasoline. Moreover, the mechanism of catalytic oxidation desulfurization was also elaborated.
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    Synthesis of poly alpha olefins used for lubricant base stocks on an AlCl3/TiCl4 catalyst
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2012, 14 (2): 55-59.  
    Abstract2106)      PDF(pc) (754KB)(6651)       Save
    The oligomersation reactions on different catalysts were investigated and discussed. 1-Octene, 1-decene, 1-dodecene, a mixed olefins (with a mass ratio w(1-octene): w(1-decene):w(1-dodecene) of 30:40:30), and the product from paraffin cracking were oligomerized on an AlCl3/TiCl4 catalyst. The results indicate that the AlCl3 catalyst leads to severe coking reaction. With an increase in carbon number of alpha olefins, the freezing points of oligomers increase and the kinematic viscosities decline. The oligomers formed from the mixed olefins and the cracking product show higher kinematic viscosities. Normal paraffins in cracking product increase the freezing point of oligomer. Furthermore, distillation range of oligomer from the cracking product is close to those of oligomers from 1-octene and 1-decene while the oligomers from the mixed olefins and 1-dodecene have similar distillation ranges.
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    Feasibility of an Intermediate Fluid Vaporizer with Spiral Wounded Tubes
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2013, 15 (1): 73-77.  
    Abstract1703)      PDF(pc) (709KB)(6586)       Save
    A novel intermediate fluid vaporization (IFV) technology for LNG re-gasification process with spiral-wound heat exchanging tubes is proposed. The new IFV project combines the advantage of running the shell and tube heat exchangers at high pressure with the advantage of compact space of heat exchangers. Thermal analysis on the two processes of forced convection and vaporization type heat transfer in the spiral wound tubes and vapor condensation /re-boiling type of heat transfer via intermediate fluid in shell side shows the feasibility of this promising technology.
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    Research on emulsion for strip cold rolling and it’s lubrications
    Zhang Xu ,Wang Yi-Zhu ,Yao Wenjing ,Jian-Lin SUN ,Wang Shiting
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn   
    Abstract2429)      PDF(pc) (342KB)(6561)       Save
    The influences on the stability and lubrication of emulsions for strip cold rolling have been investigated in this paper, including the ratios and contents of emulsifier. The present study also investigates the effects of HLB (Hydrophile Lipophile Balance) and the contents of emulsifier on stability of no-ionic emulsions. The tribological properties of the cold-rolling emulsion by using a four-ball machine, and the worn surfaces of the steel balls were observed by using an optical microscope. Besides, the lubricity of the cold-rolling emulsion for steel strip was evaluated on a cold-rolling tester. Results indicate that, good lubricating performance was obtained when the amount of separated oil and soap (SOS) accounts for 2.5%.
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    Research Progress of Palladium Catalysts for Methane Combustion
    China Petrol Proc & Petrochem Techn    2012, 14 (3): 1-9.  
    Abstract2015)      PDF(pc) (380KB)(6146)       Save
    Recent research progress and developments of the palladium catalysts for methane combustion are described in this study. Influences of active species, precursor, solvent, preparation methodologies, support and promoter on the catalytic activity and thermal stability of the palladium catalysts are discussed. Results of the deactivation and poisoning of the palladium catalysts are analyzed. Moreover, possible kinetic models and reaction mechanism are indicated for Pd catalysts.
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