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2021年 第23卷 第4期    刊出日期:2021-12-30
Scientific Research
碳包覆镍纳米复合材料在锂硫电池正极中的应用
杨宇翔 谢婧新 吴耿煌 朱娜 李欢 荣峻峰
2021, 23(4):  1-6. 
摘要 ( 165 )   PDF (882KB) ( 178 )  
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锂硫电池有望成为下一代高能量密度储能设备。近年来,“电催化”的概念被引入锂硫电池领域中,一些过渡金属被证明可以催化含硫物质的电化学转化反应。本工作中,比表面积为146 m2/g的碳包覆镍纳米材料对于硫正极的电化学反应具有电催化作用。加入碳包覆镍材料后,Ni@C/G-S电池获得了比G-S电池更好的电化学性能。在此基础上,通过对碳包覆镍的碳壳表面进行化学改性,进一步提高了锂硫电池的可逆比容量和循环稳定性。此外,本文详细研究了碳壳不同元素掺杂对锂硫电池性能的影响。N-Ni@C-G/S电池在0.2 C、0.5 C和1.0 C倍率下实现了更高的比容量,分别为1229 mAh/g、927 mAh/g和830 mAh/g;而B-Ni@C-G/S电池具有最好的循环稳定性。
增强甲苯燃烧催化活性的MnxCo3-xO4微管:氧化还原性能的影响 氧和氧物种
张晗禹 胡悦 张潇寒 孙梦瑶 刘蕊 金泉 齐健
2021, 23(4):  7-17. 
摘要 ( 100 )   PDF (1344KB) ( 102 )  
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Redox property and oxygen species play important role in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper, a series of MnxCo3-xO4 catalysts with tubular structure were synthesized and applied for the catalytic combustion of toluene. Various characterization technologies were employed to reveal the relationship between the catalytic performance of the MnxCo3-xO4 catalysts and Mn doping. The results of XRD, SEM and N2 adsorption-desorption showed that the Mn doping had significant effects on the structure and morphology of the MnxCo3-xO4 catalysts. The H2-TPR, O2-TPD and XPS results proved that the strong interaction between Co and Mn resulted in the enhanced Olatt mobility, richer active oxygen species, and enhanced redox property in comparison with the pure Co3O4 sample, which were crucial to the improvement of the catalytic activity of Co-Mn catalysts. The best catalyst, Co5-Mn5 sample, exhibited a good and stable activity to catalytically oxidize toluene at low temperatures even in the presence of water vapor, indicating that it is a potential material for the practically catalytic industrialization for the abatement of toluene.
Dechlorination of Crude Oil by Phase Transfer Catalyst in Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction
顾晋 韩鑫 刘纪昌 黄自豪 邢彪
2021, 23(4):  18-28. 
摘要 ( 108 )   PDF (836KB) ( 119 )  
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Dechlorination of crude oil is an effective way to alleviate corrosion in refinery units, and the critical process is the removal of organochlorine which can be efficiently removed through nucleophilic substitution reaction catalyzed by phase transfer. Herein, seven typical chlorinated alkanes were selected as model compounds to study the mechanism of dechlorination of crude oil by phase transfer catalyst in the nucleophilic substitution method, and a new dechlorination reagent using hexamethyl quaternary ammonium hydroxide with two quaternary ammonium groups as phase transfer catalyst, ethylenediamine as nucleophile and ethanol as solvent was developed. The results show that the dechlorinating performances of the dechlorination reagent on the model compounds are as follows: epichlorohydrin > 1,2-dichlorobutane > 1,2-dichloroethane > 1,3-dichloropropane > 2-chloropropane > 1-chlorobutane > chloroisobutane, and the results of the reaction kinetics show that epichlorohydrin with epoxy structure has the lowest activation energy in the process of nucleophilic substitution reaction by the phase transfer catalyst which makes it easier to be removed by the dechlorination reagent. The removal rate of epichlorohydrin can reach up to 99.4%. The optimal dechlorination reagent used ethylenediamine as nucleophile, ethanol as solvent and hexamethyl quaternary ammonium hydroxide as phase transfer catalyst. The dechlorinating rate of the Iranian crude oil reached 71.6 % at the reaction temperature of 95°C, the reaction time of 90 minutes, the dechlorination reagent dosage of 1000 mg/kg and the 6:1 molar ratio of phase transfer reagent and nucleophile. In addition, the mechanism of phase transfer in nucleophilic substitution reaction of chloroalkanes is investigated in the paper.
Study on Spray Characteristics of Dimethyl carbonate Blended Fuel in IC Engines
付炜 周坤 刘俊亚 谢鸿玺 李亚运 陆磊 包继虎 程云朗
2021, 23(4):  29-36. 
摘要 ( 65 )   PDF (1542KB) ( 99 )  
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In this study, the spray characteristics of the blended fuel of biodiesel and Dimethyl carbonate were compared with those of biodiesel and diesel. The macroscopic spray characteristics parameters including spray tip penetration, maximum spray width, average spray cone angle and peak tip velocity were used to evaluate the spray characteristics of the blended fuel. The results showed that the spray tip penetration of blended fuel was lower than that of biodiesel, while the spray cone angle and maximum spray width of blended fuel were both larger than that of biodiesel. On the basis of Hiroyasu and Arai mathematical model, combined with the actual working conditions of this experiment, including the viscosity and density of the fuel physical parameters, a correct model of spray penetration was established, and the experimental results were compared.
增容剂对SBS改性沥青相容性和流变特性的影响研究
董夫强 郝运哲 于新 时敬涛 陈贝 秦成林
2021, 23(4):  37-46. 
摘要 ( 55 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 95 )  
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Adding compatibilizer to polymer-modified asphalt (PMA) is an effective method to improve material compatibility and performance. However, only a few studies have systematically focused on how compatibilizer can affect the performance of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) polymer-modified asphalt (PMA). In this study, six compatibilizers with different compositions were used to prepare SBS PMA samples. Conventional performance, viscosity-temperature characteristics, viscoelastic behavior, creep properties, and morphology were investigated. The results show that adding compatibilizer to SBS PMA has a great effect on performance. High aromatics content in compatibilizers improve the high-temperature performance of SBS PMA, while a high saturates content increases low-temperature performance. Additionally, a high aromatics compatibilizer increases temperature sensitivity. While the aromatics content improves the compatibility of SBS PMA to some extent, adding compatibilizer to SBS PMA has few effects on microstructure. From our results, we can conclude that the optimum aromatics content for adding compatibilizer to SBS PMA is from 33.21 wt% to 54.22 wt%.
生物炭负载纳米零价铁去除水中石油污染物
覃菲菲 徐文斐 郝博宇 尹凌皓 宋佳宇 张秀霞
2021, 23(4):  47-57. 
摘要 ( 83 )   PDF (873KB) ( 64 )  
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在油田开采过程中,化学药剂的大量使用导致原油乳化严重,使得产出液中含有大量难以去除的原油。为了高效、快速且不产生二次污染地处理含油污水,本研究将纳米零价铁负载在菌糠生物炭上,制备了一种新型的铁炭复合材料(SMS-nZVI),并全面评估了其处理高浓度石油污水的的能力。室内模拟除油实验,结果表明,与单独的菌糠生物炭和纳米零价铁相比,SMS-nZVI除油速度快、效果显著。采用SEM,TEM,BET和FTIR对材料的形貌,结构和性能进行了表征,结果表明,采用生物炭做基底材料可以有效地防止纳米零价铁的团聚,增加材料整体比表面积,增强材料吸附能力。将菌糠生物炭基底与其他生物炭基底进行对比发现,菌糠生物炭制备的铁炭复合材料除油效果优于传统的小麦秸秆生物炭。通过对实验条件的优化,得到了具有最佳除油效果的操作工艺:当纳米零价铁与生物炭的质量比为1:5,pH值为4,原油的初始浓度为1000mg·L-1时,水中石油的去除率在5h时可达到95%。将SMS-nZVI暴露在空气中30天进行自然老化处理后,材料仍能保持62%以上的石油去除率,这说明该材料具有良好的稳定性。
Catalyst Research
渣油催化临氢热转化钼铁双金属催化剂的研究
陶梦莹 侯焕娣 董明 许可
2021, 23(4):  58-64. 
摘要 ( 47 )   PDF (754KB) ( 75 )  
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Replacement of precious single metal catalysts with cost-effective, highly-dispersed composite catalysts for catalytic hydrothermal conversion of residue holds tremendous promise for the residue upgrading technologies. Organic metals were added to the feed as the oil-soluble precursors, and transformed into the catalytic active phases in this work. Physical properties and structures of the composite catalysts had been investigated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The composite catalysts were found to be highly efficient in the catalytic hydrothermal conversion of both model compound and residue. Increased metal dispersion and synergistic effects of two metals played indispensable roles in such catalytic system. Results showed that under the test conditions in the article, the catalyst had the best catalytic performance when the mass ratio of molybdenum to iron was 1.5.
Cu-Zr复合氧化物负载PdO催化氯丙烯醚化合成烯丙基醚
袁恩先 桑瑞士 菅盘铭
2021, 23(4):  65-74. 
摘要 ( 79 )   PDF (1778KB) ( 69 )  
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本文采用共沉淀法制备了一系列Cu/Zr比从2/8至9/1的铜-锆复合氧化物,再负载PdO用于氯丙烯与醇醚化反应合成烯丙基醚。PdO/CumZrn催化剂的表征结果证实ZrO2相的存在不仅有益于Pd2+的高分散,同时也能与CuO作用有利于Cu+的生成。PdO/CumZrn催化性能随着Cu/Zr比的增加呈现先增强后减弱的趋势,具有高Cu+含量的PdO/Cu7Zr3催化剂显示出最优性能,反应转化率和选择性分别为53.2%和60.3%。这是因为相比于Cu2+-O2-对,Cu+-Oα-对能够增强醇中-O-H键的解离活化,从而提升了醚化反应。
碳微球负载镍催化顺酐选择性加氢制备丁二酸酐
周娅芬 陈其嶙 王清 宋宇 周丽梅
2021, 23(4):  75-82. 
摘要 ( 60 )   PDF (818KB) ( 115 )  
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采用水热法制备了胶态碳微球(CMS),进一步制备了碳微球负载镍催化剂(Ni/CMS), 并进行了FTIR、XRD、SEM、TEM和N2吸附表征。对Ni/CMS催化顺酐(MA) 选择性加氢制备丁二酸酐(SA) 进行了考察,结果表明,以葡萄糖为碳源,经过500 ○C焙烧制备的Ni/CMS催化剂表现最佳的性能,氢气压力、反应温度和反应时间对加氢反应中顺酐转化率有很大影响。以乙酸酐作溶剂,在90 ○C、1.0 MPa H2压力、反应3小时的温和条件下,顺酐在Ni/CMS催化剂上转化率达到98.4%,丁二酸酐选择性为100%。
Lubrication Research
钠离子交换型层状磷酸锆的合成与摩擦学性能
田成光 张效胜 徐红 董晋湘
2021, 23(4):  83-94. 
摘要 ( 54 )   PDF (1911KB) ( 76 )  
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本文以磷酸氢二钠为钠源合成了钠离子交换型层状磷酸锆材料(Na-α-ZrP),该方法是一种高效的离子交换方法。分别采用四球摩擦试验机和SRV试验机研究了Na-α-ZrP作为锂基润滑脂添加剂的摩擦学性能,此外,还研究了Na-α-ZrP与ZDDP的协同效果。结果表明,Na-α-ZrP能有效提高锂基脂的减摩抗磨性能,与ZDDP复配后,在高载荷下表现出优异的抗磨性能。使用3D光学轮廓仪、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)观察了磨损表面,提出了其中可能存在的润滑机理。简单高效的合成方法和优越的摩擦学性能使Na-α-ZrP具备成为润滑添加剂的潜在可能。
一种防卡咬螺纹润滑剂的理化和摩擦学性能研究
王志民 向硕 刘晓强 鲍一晨 石秀强 何燕
2021, 23(4):  95-104. 
摘要 ( 58 )   PDF (2918KB) ( 63 )  
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Di-aromatics base oil and graphite powder, adding with viscosity index improver and anti-oxidant and rheological additive, were used to prepare a kind of anti-seize thread lubricant. Its physical chemistry properties, such as water resistance, thermal oxidation and aging properties, tribological performance were evaluated and compared with those of some commercial product. The results show that the overall the overall performance of the anti-seize thread lubricant met the level of some commercial product, and some properties such as thermal stability, anti-wear and anti-friction properties were better. It is more suitable for high temperature conditions.
润滑油基础油氧化链引发反应机理的分子模拟
夏垒 李岩 张红梅 姜正义 龙军
2021, 23(4):  105-112. 
摘要 ( 74 )   PDF (345KB) ( 99 )  
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Chain initiation reactions in the oxidation process of lubricant base stock molecules were studied by molecular simulations. Two ways to initiate lubricant oxidation were investigated. They were the dissociation of chemical bonds in base stock molecules and the reaction between base stock molecules and oxygen (O2), respectively. Reaction activation energies of above methods were calculated. The results show that C—C bonds are more likely to break than C—H bonds to generate free radicals by the pyrolysis of chemical bonds. The C—C bonds with tertiary carbon atoms are preferential positions to crack. However, bond dissociation energies of them are above 360 kJ/mol, which are difficult to occur under lubricant working conditions. The chain initiation is more likely to occur by the way that O2 attacks the two atoms in C—H bonds at the same time, and embeds into the C—H bond to produce hydrocarbon peroxides. And then, the O—O bond is cracked to form hydroxyl radicals and alkoxy radicals. The C—H bonds with tertiary carbon atoms are the preferential reaction sites, whose reaction activation energy is about 190.11 kJ/mol.
Process Research
Reaction Process of Heavy Hydrocarbon in Ebullated Bed Hydrogenation
王建军 仝玉军 杨涛 葛海龙 孟兆会
2021, 23(4):  113-120. 
摘要 ( 59 )   PDF (453KB) ( 94 )  
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The properties and structural changes of unconverted oil (UCO) in ebullated bed residue hydrogenation at different conversion rates were analyzed to clarify the reaction process of heavy components. Meanwhile, the processing routes of UCO, delay coking and solvent deasphalting, were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of conversion, the impurity removal rate increased; meanwhile the contents of sulfur and metal in UCO decreased, while the contents of nitrogen and residual carbon increased, and the colloidal stability of UCO became worse. The structural parameters of UCO indicated that the change of heavy oil molecular structure was mainly opening of cycloalkanes ring, hydrogenation saturation of aromatic rings and dealkylation reaction during the ebullated bed hydrogenation; the aromatic structure was basically unchanged at high conversion, mainly due to the ring opening of cycloalkanes and the fracture reaction of alkyl side chains. The coking route of UCO showed that low sulfur petroleum coke with different grades could be prepared by adjusting ebullated bed conversion to produce UCOs with different properties. The coke generating coefficient and sulfur transfer coefficient in UCO coking process were higher than those in residue coking. The properties of deasphalt oil (DAO) of UCO was significantly improved and could be used as FCC or hydrocracking feedstock. The DAO yield of UCO feedstock at high conversion was higher, and its sulfur content was lower and residual carbon value was higher.
A simple and effective method to fabricate separation membranes for the dehydration of natural gas
张晓灿 李田田 卿双勇 李雪松 张瑛 周倩
2021, 23(4):  121-129. 
摘要 ( 49 )   PDF (1253KB) ( 70 )  
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PBT/PEG1000 composite membranes were prepared by the phase inversion method and were used to dehydrate natural gas. In this study, evaporation time, coagulation bath concentration, and additives in casting solution were investigated, respectively, on the selectivity and permeability of separation membranes, and optimal conditions were found to include an evaporation time of 30 sec, an 100% PEG400-containing coagulation bath and 2% of PVA used as the additive. The H2O/CH4 selectivity reached over 3600, which is about 20 times more selective than the original membrane. It provides a simple and effective preparation method to fabricate membranes for dehydration of methane gas.
Simulation and Optimization
Numerical simulation of dilute phase transportation in pulse riser
安晓熙 杨泽 乔英云 田原宇
2021, 23(4):  130-140. 
摘要 ( 40 )   PDF (1611KB) ( 83 )  
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To study the hydrodynamic characteristics of gas–solid-phase flow in a pulse riser, a dense discrete particle model considering particle collisions and solid volume fraction is used. The core-annular flow in the enlarged-diameter section of the pulse riser is described, which can be destroyed with a high superficial gas velocity. The particle trajectory crossing effect and particle–particle and particle–wall collisions in the reduced-diameter section of the pulse riser can also destroy the core-annular flow and enhance the gas–solid interaction. The solid volume fraction exhibits an S-type distribution at different solid mass rates. The distributions of axial velocity, radial velocity, and relative slip velocity are investigated by analyzing the simulated results at different pulse riser diameter ratios. A suitable pulse riser diameter ratio can improve the performance of the pulse riser.
Mixing and vaporization process of injecting water in hydrogenation unit
刘骁飞 俞晨炀 朱海燕 许恒晖 金浩哲 王超
2021, 23(4):  141-150. 
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To prevent and control the corrosion and blockage caused by the crystallization of ammonium salt, the most common method is to inject water before the crystallization position of ammonium salt. The droplet atomization and evaporation model were used for investigating the evaporating process of hot high-pressure gas mix with injecting water in hydrogenation units. The results show that the distributions of the fluid velocity, temperature, droplet volume fraction and evaporation rate were different under different injection parameters. With the increase of water injecting mass flow rate, the velocity and temperature of the flow increase continuously. When the mass flow rate is 1.5 t/h, the droplet has the maximum evaporation efficiency and reaches the minimum volume fraction. With the increase of atomization Angle and droplet size, the average velocity and temperature of the flow field decrease continuously. The increase of atomization angle or the decrease of droplet size will accelerate the evaporation rate of droplets and reduce the droplet volume fraction, which indicates that droplet slip velocity and contact area are the key factors affecting droplet evaporation rate.
目录-Content
Content
2021, 23(4):  0. 
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