Please wait a minute...

当期目录

2021年 第23卷 第2期    刊出日期:2021-06-30
Review
石油化工中的结晶
张得江 范瑛琦 谢丽 丁晖殿 王皓
2021, 23(2):  1-10. 
摘要 ( 369 )   PDF (734KB) ( 340 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
结晶是一种应用广泛的产品精制单元操作。了解石油化工中结晶过程的特点,有助于选择和设计新的结晶工艺。本综述简要介绍了结晶工艺的特点,总结了在石油化工中应用的结晶工艺,讨论了结晶工艺设计中应注意的问题。石油化工工艺中的结晶主要用于聚合物单体的提纯,并且往往是整个精制流程中的一部分。合理的设计一个结晶工艺,需要从全局考虑工艺的安全性、可行性和经济性。
Simulation and Optimization
渣油加氢创新失活模型的应用
张奎 聂红 戴立顺
2021, 23(2):  11-20. 
摘要 ( 174 )   PDF (2154KB) ( 254 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
This article reports a new catalyst deactivation model for residue hydrotreating technology (RHT) with three adjustable parameters, named as "active-region-migration model". Active-region-migration model is proposed to describe the catalyst deactivation of RHT where the catalysts are deactivated due to metal loading. Along with the lumped reaction kinetics, the deactivation model can be applied to simulate the hydrogenation reaction performance in RHT. Industrial data from a commercial RHT unit show reasonably good agreements with the model calculations. Essentially, active-region-migration model can separately simulate the catalytic-activity change of each hydrogenation reaction during the whole run of RHT, with a single curve.
HZSM-5分子筛酸性对苯和甲醇烷基化反应影响的密度泛函理论研究
魏丕峰 付广斌 牟善良 高继超 闻振浩 朱学栋
2021, 23(2):  21-27. 
摘要 ( 155 )   PDF (1789KB) ( 156 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
通过Al,Ga,In的同晶取代构建了不同酸性的HZSM-5分子筛,并通过密度泛函理论方法探究HZSM-5分子筛酸性对多甲基苯的吸附以及苯和甲醇烷基化反应能垒的影响。结果表明酸性对多甲基苯的吸附影响较小,而酸性和反应能垒则成线性关系。随着分子筛酸性的增强,反应能垒线性减小,在强酸环境中,分步机理起主导作用,而弱酸有利于协同机理。计算结果有助于理解分子筛酸性与其催化的多甲基苯烷基化反应之间的关系。
Heat transfer and kinetics study of Moroccan oil shale pyrolysis process
湛晨宇 马跃 岳长涛 李术元 唐勋 文华
2021, 23(2):  28-33. 
摘要 ( 134 )   PDF (1274KB) ( 170 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
The basic properties of Moroccan oil shale were analyzed in this paper. Pyrolysis experiments at different heating rates were carried out by thermogravimetry. The results show that the process of Moroccan oil shale can be divided into three steps. A shrink-nuclear model that considers the internal heat transfer of particles was established. The pyrolysis kinetic parameters of Moroccan oil shale were calculated based on heat transfer data and basic physical parameters. The results show that the apparent activation energy of the reaction is about 120 kJ/mol, the apparent frequency factor is about 2×1014 mol/(s?m2). Therefore, the pyrolysis process of oil shale can be better simulated by shrink-nuclear model considering the internal heat transfer of the particles.
Heat Exchanger Network Retrofit of Diesel Hydrotreating Unit Using Pinch Analysis
孙梦迎 张凤娇 刘兴隆 孙兰义
2021, 23(2):  34-43. 
摘要 ( 123 )   PDF (1302KB) ( 179 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Diesel hydrotreating unit (DHT) is an integral part of the refinery, and its energy-saving optimization is of great significance to the enterprise. In this paper, process simulation software and energy management software are used to simulate the flowsheet and analyze the energy consumption, respectively. Stream data obtained from an existing DHT are applied in the pinch analysis for retrofitting the heat exchanger network (HEN) to achieve maximum energy utilization by using pinch analysis. Since DHT is constrained by pressure, the pressure factor is considered in the process of retrofitting. The results show that the amount of cross-pinch heat transfer is reduced, the inlet temperature of the furnace is increased by 55 ℃, and the amount of hot and cold utilities can be reduced by 70.25% and 50.16%, respectively. The economic evaluation indicates that the operating cost is saved by 4.39×106 $/a, and the payback period is about 2 months.
Scientific Research
Study on Reducing Injection Pressure of Low Permeability Reservoirs Characterized by High Temperature and High Salinity
赵琳 秦冰 吴雄军 王增林 江建林
2021, 23(2):  44-54. 
摘要 ( 116 )   PDF (1322KB) ( 161 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
In view of the problems of high injection pressure and low water injection rate in water injection wells of low permeability reservoirs with high temperature and high salinity, two new surfactants were synthesized, including quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactant and betaine amphoteric surfactant. The composite surfactant system BYJ-1 was formed by mixing two kinds of surfactants. The minimum interfacial tension between BYJ-1 solution and the crude oil could reach 1.4×10-3mN/m. The temperature resistance was up to 140℃, and the salt resistance was up to 120g/L. For the low permeability core fully saturated with water phase, BYJ-1 could obviously reduce the starting pressure gradient of low permeability core. While for the core with residual oil, BAY-1 could obviously reduce the injection pressure and improve the oil recovery. Moreover, the field test showed that BAY-1 could obviously reduce the injection pressure of the water injection well, increase the injection volume, and increase the liquid production and oil production of the corresponding production well.
Structural and Textural Transitions During Dehydration-Rehydration Process in the Zn–BDC Materials
刁玉霞 忻睦迪 史延强 徐广通 付颖
2021, 23(2):  55-59. 
摘要 ( 93 )   PDF (707KB) ( 149 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
A Zn-BDC (1,4-benzene-dicarboxylic acid ) compound has been studied herein reversibly adsorbing and desorbing water from a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solvent. The compound is structurally stable and can be reused. XRD, TG, SEM and BET results show morphology, textural properties and phase gradually transforms from a non-porous compound into a porous Zn-MOF by exposing in the steam of DMF with trace water. This dried phase [Zn(BDC)] is able to reversibly removal/uptake coordinating water molecules which enabled Zn-BDC compound with the ability to dehydrate the solvent.
Enhanced mineralization of p-fluoronitrobenzene in a methane-based hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor
刘春爽 于海彤 李伟 王雁楠 国亚东 刘芳
2021, 23(2):  60-65. 
摘要 ( 98 )   PDF (714KB) ( 109 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
In this study, the enhanced mineralization of p-fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) was achieved in a methane-based hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (CH4-MBfR). A TOC removal of 73.2% was gained in CH4-MBfR with an influent p-FNB loading of 42-84 mg/L·d, while only 40.6% of TOC was removed in the corresponding control biological reactor (BR). Moreover, the reaction rate constant for TOC removal in CH4-MBfR was 2.48 times that of the BR. VFAs was only detected in CH4-MBfR, although oxidation elimination was the first step for p-FNB removal in both systems. Methylococcus and Methylononas were dominant strains in the CH4-MBfR, which may play an important role in converting CH4 to VFAs and then further enhancing the mineralization efficiency of p-FNB.
Synthesis of WO3/GO and Its Oxidative Desulfurization Activity
王子豪 李秀萍 郝洋洋 赵荣祥
2021, 23(2):  66-76. 
摘要 ( 82 )   PDF (1157KB) ( 145 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
WO3/GO was synthesized by immersion method. This catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scaning electron microscopy (SEM), Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements (BET). The characterization results show that WO3 has been dispersed on the GO. WO3/GO was used as catalyst in the oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT), H2O2 as oxidant and tacetonitrile as extraction agent. The experimental results show that the sulfur removal rate of DBT reached 99.2%, 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) reached 95% and benzothiophene (BT) reached 42.8% under the optimal reaction conditions. Meanwhile, the cyclic catalysts still exhibit good desulfurization performance after four times reaction. The high activity and stability of catalysis is because a small dose of WO3 highly dispersed in layer of GO. This desulfurization reaction followed pseudo first-order kinetics, and the apparent active energy of the desulfurization was 18.515 KJ/mol, which indicated that the WO3/GO as desulfurization catalysis show good desulfurization property for DBT.
Catalyst Research
模板剂预反应法合成IM-5分子筛
孙敏
2021, 23(2):  77-83. 
摘要 ( 103 )   PDF (693KB) ( 121 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
以合成模板剂1,5-双(N-甲基吡咯烷)戊烷溴盐的前驱物N-甲基吡咯烷和1,5-二溴戊烷为原料预反应,再将铝源、碱源、水和硅源加入反应体系,水热晶化合成了IM-5分子筛。系统考察了模板剂预反应法前驱物的比例及其与其它物料的配比和晶化反应条件对合成分子筛的结晶度、晶体形貌和孔结构等物性的影响,为工业化生产提供基础数据。分别采用XRD、SEM和N2吸附-脱附等分析表征手段对合成样品进行了物性分析,并对样品的催化性能进行了评价。结果表明,采用模板剂预反应法可以有效合成出高质量IM-5分子筛,物性以及在催化苯与甲醇烷基化反应中的催化活性与传统方法合成的工业样品相当
Co-Ce-Ni Ternary Metal Oxide Modified N-activated Carbon: The Superior Low Temperature NH3-SCR Performance
王佩 李源 刘俊 刘晓庆 谭迎新 张永发
2021, 23(2):  84-97. 
摘要 ( 95 )   PDF (1875KB) ( 137 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Introducing reduced metal and nitrogen species is a powerful strategy to improve the reactivity of carbon-based materials for selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3. To further improve the NH3-SCR performance of non-pitch coal activated coke (NPAC), a series of metal oxides (e.g., Co, Ce, and Ni) were loaded on nitrogen modified NPAC. The outstanding performance of NPAC-N-CoCeNi as well as the superior SO2- and H2O-tolerate performance are attributed to the extra electrons caused by the modification of N species, and these extra electrons are more conducive to the electron transfer. More importantly, the interaction of the major active component Co3+ and the promoter catalysts CeO2, NiOx, or CoNiO2 can also increase the charge transfer and produce more oxygen vacancy and unsaturated chemical bonds, leading to improving the redox performance of NPAC-N-CoCeNi. In addition, the NH3-SCR reaction is promoted after the metal oxides co-doping mainly via the Mars-van-Krevelen mechanism.
Fabrication of Fe Nanoparticles into N-doped Mesoporous Carbon Nanotube Derived from rice-like Fe/N-MOF and its ORR catalytic performance for MFC
卢德成 王文艺 常嘉诚 王雪芹 王园园 宋华
2021, 23(2):  98-108. 
摘要 ( 145 )   PDF (2540KB) ( 128 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
非贵金属氧还原催化剂(ORR)的发展,以改善微生物燃料电池(MFC)的性能仍然是一个极大的挑战。本文以乙腈为氮前体,在低成本的有机溶剂中,以Fe/N-MOF为原料,采用热解法制备了铁基含氮多孔碳纳米管Fe/N-MC-T ORR催化剂。通过SEM、TEM、BET、XRD和XPS对不同热解温度下Fe/N-MC-T催化剂进行了表征。Fe/N-MOF呈光滑的米粒状结构,粒径约为400×50 nm。Fe/N-MC-T中的铁元素主要以零价铁的形式存在,Fe3C含量较低。电化学测试结果表明,Fe/N-MC-T的起始电位和半波电位分别为0.89 V和0.80 V,略低于商用Pt/C的0.92 V和0.82 V,说明Fe/N-MC-700对ORR具有较高的电催化活性。Fe/N-MC-700在MFC中显示的最高功率密度864.1 mW?m - 2,大约是碳布的2.25倍,略低于MFC和Pt / C (20 wt %) (1002.0 mW?m - 2),展示了铁颗粒包裹在碳纳米管是具有高度活跃的氧还原性能。
Process Research
固定化双酶在循环冷却水中增强环氧树脂对Q235碳钢的耐腐蚀性
姜国飞 赵小萱 李炜 车阳丽 刘芳
2021, 23(2):  109-120. 
摘要 ( 122 )   PDF (1821KB) ( 129 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
通过一锅合成法制备羧基官能化的SBA-15(COOH / SBA-15),并通过FT-IR,SEM,XRD和BET对制备的材料进行表征。 使用COOH / SBA-15作为载体,制备了固定化的双酶COOH-SBA-15 / LZM-LP(脂肪酶和溶菌酶)。 正交试验采用缓蚀指数优化了固定化条件。 电化学测试表明,COOH-SBA-15 / LZM-LP可以显着抑制循环冷却水中碳钢的腐蚀。 当用量为0.2 g·L-1时,腐蚀抑制率高于93%。 从羧基和酶的角度提出了抑制机理。 最后,当将COOH-SBA-15 / LZM-LP掺杂到环氧树脂中时,发现可以显着提高环氧树脂涂料的耐腐蚀性,并且在浸泡720 h后其耐腐蚀性仅下降0.23%。
Effect of Water on Extractive Desulfurization of Simulated FCC Gasoline Using Ionic Liquid NMP-FeCl3-H2O
方柳亚 沈陟 沈喜洲 康顺吉
2021, 23(2):  121-131. 
摘要 ( 127 )   PDF (1125KB) ( 132 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
A series of novel aqueous ionic liquids (NMP-FeCl3-nH2O) were prepared and the effects of water in the aqueous ionic liquids on desulfurization rate and selectivity of simulated FCC gasoline were investigated. The results showed that adding a small amount of water into the ionic liquid NMP-FeCl3 could effectively improve the desulfurization rate and selectivity, and the optimal added amount of water was 5wt% ~ 10wt% of NMP. Finally, the possible desulfurization mechanism activated by a small amount of water was proposed.
High-efficiency Extraction of Bitumen from Oil Sands Using Mixture of Ionic Liquid [Emim][BF4] and Dichloromethane
孙寅璐 孙祎卓 贾宇珊 苑巍 宋溪明
2021, 23(2):  132-138. 
摘要 ( 97 )   PDF (774KB) ( 124 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
An ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF4]), was used to enhance bitumen recovery from oil sands by dichloromethane solvent extraction. A multiphase system could be formed by simply mixing the components at ambient temperature, consisting of sands and clays, mixtures of ionic liquid and dichloromethane, and concentrated bitumen layer. The results demonstrated that [Emim][BF4] increased the bitumen recovery up to 92%. Much less clay fines were found in the recovered bitumen than those formed by using dichloromethane solvent extraction alone, and the dichloromethane residue was not detected in the spent sands. We proposed that [Emim][BF4] had an ability to reduce the adhesion of bitumen to sand, resulting in an improved separation efficiency. Furthermore, [Emim][BF4] could facilitate the transfer of the extracted bitumen to the surface interface, and then the bitumen was auto-partitioned to a separate immiscible phase for ease of harvesting. This technology circumvented the issue of high consumption of distillation energy due to separation of bitumen phase and low boiling point of dichloromethane. [Emim][BF4] and dichloromethane could be readily recycled through the system and used repeatedly. After ten cycles, the bitumen recovery remained above 88%. Initial scale-up work suggested that this approach would form the basis for a viable large-scale process.