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2020年 第22卷 第3期    刊出日期:2020-09-30
目录-Content
 Content
2020, 22(3):  0. 
摘要 ( 24 )   PDF (249KB) ( 50 )  
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 Content
Scientific Research
Preparation and Optimization of Porous Membrane Electrodes via gradient coating in Hydrogen Fuel Cell
顾贤睿 吴玉超 王厚朋 荣峻峰
2020, 22(3):  1-8. 
摘要 ( 104 )   PDF (1997KB) ( 259 )  
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Fuel cells are considered to be one of the ideal alternatives to traditional fossil energy conversion devices. Membrane electrodes are the core components in the hydrogen fuel cells. Our work reported the first synthesizes of the Pt/C catalyst with different Pt loading, and by changing the Nafion content, hot pressing temperature and hot pressing pressure, CCM spraying process was optimized, Moreover the three-dimensional structure model of the single battery membrane electrode was studied quantitatively, and the porous membrane electrode with gradient distribution was fabricated under optimized processing conditions, with excellent electrical performance.
无金属碳材料-铁氰化钾阴极系统用于微生物燃料电池产电性能的研究
蒋博龙 Ulrich Kunz
2020, 22(3):  9-18. 
摘要 ( 93 )   PDF (1310KB) ( 167 )  
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本文中,我们设计了不含金属的碳材料电极板(150 mm×150 mm),并考察了电极板流通通道以及不同表面粗糙度对微生物燃料电池(MFC)性能的影响。由于电极表面没有涂敷任何催化剂, 因此价格便宜,且拥有良好的耐久性。实验过程中发现,电极表面粗糙度以及不同阴极电子受体(K3Fe(CN)6和空气)均可以影响MFC的性能。结果表明,当电极表面粗糙度增加1.41倍时,MFC的功率密度增加了1.56倍。随着K3Fe(CN)6浓度上升,MFC的功率也逐步提升。当K3Fe(CN)6的浓度达到30 mM时,MFC的功率密度高达1260 mW/m2,该值分别是空气为阴极反应物时的21.4倍(59 mW/m2)和K3Fe (CN)6 +空气为反应物时的1.3倍(1005 mW/m2)。该结果表明,K3Fe(CN)6浓度适中时,对MFC功率有着积极的作用。以K3Fe(CN)6为阴极液时,库伦效率、能量效率以及COD降解率的最高值分别达到了34.2%,13.3%以及73.5%。根据Butler-Volmer方程公式,我们计算了MFC的超电势损失。通过计算结果可知,欧姆损失与传质损失均远低于活化损失,而传质损失的最高值不超过3 mV,故可以忽略不计。理论计算的结果表明,随着K3Fe(CN)6转化率的升高,阴极电势逐渐降低,当转化率达到0.99时,其电势只有0.31 V。而对于阳极,pH值是否保持稳定对其电势的影响也很大。计算结果表明,当pH值随反应物转化率发生变化时,阳极的电势会急剧上升,该现象对MFC产电极为不利,因此阳极缓冲液的加入对MFC正常运转十分重要。
Preparation and Field Application of a Novel Micro-emulsion As Heavy Oil Displacement Agent
秦 冰 乔富林 李财富
2020, 22(3):  19-27. 
摘要 ( 48 )   PDF (1196KB) ( 165 )  
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含石蜡相变微胶囊的丁羟胶(HTPB)类聚氨酯弹性体的合成及其热学性能及力学性能的研究
丁洪晶 赵天波 王丽丽
2020, 22(3):  28-32. 
摘要 ( 107 )   PDF (791KB) ( 199 )  
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以苯乙烯-二乙烯基苯共聚物为囊壁及以密胺树脂为囊壁、熔点50℃的石蜡为囊芯制备了两种石蜡相变材料微胶囊,将其不经任何处理直接添加到端羟基聚丁二烯(HTPB)型聚氨酯弹性体体系中,制备出聚氨酯弹性体复合材料,并对制备的含两种不同囊壁的石蜡相变微胶囊的聚氨酯弹性体的热力学稳定性和力学性能进行了测试和表征。其结果表明,加入石蜡相变微胶囊后聚氨酯弹性体本身很好的热力学稳定性并未降低,且含密胺树脂为囊壁的石蜡相变微胶囊的聚氨酯弹性体热力学稳定性增大了;加入微胶囊后其拉伸强度及压缩强度都得到的大幅度的提高;随着加入的石蜡相变微胶囊的囊壁/囊芯质量比的变大,压缩强度增大,拉伸强度减少;而含密胺树脂囊壁类的胶样增加拉伸强度的幅度比较大,而含聚苯乙烯囊壁类的胶样增加压缩强度的幅度较大。
Construction of hierarchical nanostructured N-doped TiO2 immobilized activated carbon fiber porous composites for toluene removal
李雨薇 李炜 李孟 刘芳 齐学进 王永强
2020, 22(3):  33-42. 
摘要 ( 101 )   PDF (2487KB) ( 218 )  
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The hierarchical nanostructured N-doped TiO2 immobilized activated carbon fiber (N-TiO2/ACF) porous composites are fabricated to removal dynamic toluene gas. The results show nitrogen ions doping and ACF modification decrease the band gap of TiO2, leading to red shift toward visible light region. Interestingly, N-TiO2/ACF exhibits strongly synergistic effect owing to high surface area, good crystallinity, enhanced bandgap structure and light harvesting. The toluene removal rate of N-TiO2/ACF composites is 2.29 times higher than that of TiO2. The N-TiO2/ACF for toluene degradation followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, and the rate constant is enhanced 8 times compared with TiO2. The possible photodegradation pathway and mechanisms are proposed.
Determination of natural rubber content in Taraxacum kok-saghyzby pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
王璐 Tianyang Guo 张庆 马强 董益阳 Jichuan Zhang
2020, 22(3):  43-48. 
摘要 ( 129 )   PDF (680KB) ( 202 )  
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Nowadays, natural rubber (NR) is an indispensable material in production and life. Research has found that the root of Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS) contains a large amount of NR, which can be used in industrial production. In order to find a convenient, fast and green method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rubber, the composition analysis and quantitative research of TKS were carried out by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). The results indicated the main products of TKS rubber after pyrolysis were isoprene and limonene. Py-GC-MS can be used for TKS rubber quantification and the limit of detection (LOD) of TKS rubber was 2.603 mg/g. The ratios of rubber mass fractions in TKSs by Soxhlet extraction / gravimetric method were ranging from 1.20%±0.20% to 8.61%±0.28%. The developed method has been applied for determination of actual TKS samples and further applied to the field test for rapid breeding and large-scale cultivation of TKS. Keywords: Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS); natural rubber (NR); pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS); quantification
Process Research
[Bmim]Br—多元醇低共熔溶剂萃取脱除苯并噻吩
刘洁
2020, 22(3):  49-55. 
摘要 ( 121 )   PDF (954KB) ( 199 )  
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1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑溴([Bmim]Br)与多元醇如乙二醇、丙二醇、丙三醇按摩尔比1:2合成低共熔溶剂[Bmim]Br—多元醇。采用FT-IR红外和 氢核磁对低共熔溶剂[Bmim]B-2丙二醇([Bmim]Br-2PG)进行表征。本文首次对[Bmim]Br-2PG的脱硫性能进行了研究。结果表明在温度30℃、萃取时间30min、剂油质量比1:1的条件下,该溶剂的单次萃取脱硫率为54.1%,5次萃取后,脱硫率高达98.2%,模型油中的硫含量降低到10μg/g以下。而且该溶剂重复使用4次后,脱硫率仍可达到50.5%,具有较好的重复使用性能。
麦饭石基添加剂作用下棉花籽与杨树花在亚临界水/乙醇中共液化制备生物油
王宝凤 Xiaomin Yan 程芳琴
2020, 22(3):  56-64. 
摘要 ( 91 )   PDF (637KB) ( 199 )  
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<html dir="ltr"><head></head><body>研究了麦饭石(MS)基添加剂作用下棉花籽与杨树花在亚临界水/乙醇中的共液化行为。并采用FTIR、GC-MS、1HNMR和13CNMR对液化油产物进行了表征。结果表明,在无添加剂的情况下,棉花籽与杨树花的比例为1:1时,二者有明显的协同作用。添加PW12、HZSM-5、PW12/HZSM-5和MS、PW12/MS、Ni/MS、Co/MS、Mo/MS、Co-Mo/MS均可提高液化油收率。其中,添加改性麦饭石的液化油收率高于添加麦饭石的液化油收率。此外,添加Ni/MS、Mo/MS、Co-Mo/MS等添加剂也能提高液化油中的脂肪烃产率。添加Co-Mo/MS时的液化油收率最高,为28.8%,而添加PW12/HZSM-5时总转化率最高,为81.6%。结果表明,添加PW12/MS、PW12、PW12/HZSM-5、Ni/MS、Co/MS、Mo/MS和Co-Mo/MS等添加剂均能使气体产物中氢气的含量增加,CO2的含量降低。</body></html>
Enviromental Protection
采样条件对挥发性有机物组成的影响及不同炼油厂生产装置挥发性有机物的排放特性
冯云霞 肖安山 李波 董瑞 贾润中 李明俊
2020, 22(3):  65-72. 
摘要 ( 79 )   PDF (597KB) ( 173 )  
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Removal of phenanthrene from contaminated soil by ozonation process
杨忆新 高文芳 杨敬超 曹宏斌
2020, 22(3):  73-79. 
摘要 ( 73 )   PDF (732KB) ( 148 )  
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In order to improve the efficiency of ozonation process for the remediation of PAHs contaminated soil, the performance experiments were carried out with quartz sand artificially contaminated by phenanthrene as the research object. The byproducts of phenanthrene in ozonation were detected by GC-MS and the toxicity was evaluated by seed germination tests. The influence of the particle size and moisture content of quartz sand on the ozonation efficiency was investigated. In addition, two kinds of real soil were used to compare with the quartz sand. The results indicated that the ozonation process could cause a phenanthrene removal rate of 96% within 10 hours. Three byproducts of phenanthrene were obtained such as 9,10-phenanthrenedione, (1,1'-biphenyl)-2,2'-dicarboxaldehyde, and (1,1'-biphenyl)-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid. As proven by seed germination tests, the toxicity of the byproducts was lower than phenanthrene. The phenanthrene was removed more effectively by ozonation in the quartz sand with finer particle size. The ozonation efficiency was significantly improved by increasing the moisture content of quartz sand. Based on the results in previous papers, it is assumed that the moisture is advantageous to ozonation process in alkaline soil but disadvantageous in acidic soil. Experimental results about two kinds of real soil are consistent with the above assumption.
Lubrication Research
两种制备方法对锂基润滑脂流变性的影响研究
何懿峰
2020, 22(3):  80-87. 
摘要 ( 76 )   PDF (1307KB) ( 222 )  
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A simple but high-efficient approach for construction of 2D nanostructured h-BN/WS2 heterojunction through hydrothermal-assisted exfoliation and their friction performance in grease
马占胜 刘赞 程志林
2020, 22(3):  88-93. 
摘要 ( 89 )   PDF (1600KB) ( 203 )  
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In this work, we successfully prepared the 2D nanostructured h-BN/WS2 heterojunction by the hydrothermal-assisted exfoliation of bulk h-BN and WS2. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared heterojunction were determined by a series of characterizations. The forming mechanism of the as-prepared heterojunction was proposed. The friction coefficient and wear rate of the as-prepared h-BN/WS2 heterojunction-based grease was decreased by 33.9 % and 45.9% compared to the based grease.
Simulation and Optimization
分子结构对针状焦中间相堆积形态的影响
杨海洋 王春璐 周涵 王丽新 任强 范启明
2020, 22(3):  94-100. 
摘要 ( 117 )   PDF (1741KB) ( 220 )  
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采用分子模拟方法考察分子结构对针状焦中间相堆积的影响。模拟结果表明,蒽三聚物和四聚物堆积形态比较有序,而二聚物、五聚物和六聚物堆积形态不规整。模型化合物中的蒽三聚物和四聚物是针状焦中间相理想的分子组成。研究发现,蒽三聚物分子结构中引入烷基侧链不利于中间相的有序堆积。总之,与蒽三聚物或四聚物结构相似且不含侧链的化合物是针状焦中间相理想的组成。
分子动力学模拟研究大分子润滑油氧化产物的运动和聚集行为及其对基础油性能的影响
夏垒 李岩 张红梅 姜正义 龙军
2020, 22(3):  101-108. 
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采用分子动力学模拟研究了大分子润滑氧化产物的运动和聚集行为及其对基础油性能的影响通过计算分子的均方位移研究分子的运动能力,通过观察润滑油氧化产物在模型中的分布研究氧化产物的聚集行为。研究结果表明:大分子润滑油氧化产物的运动能力低于基础油分子。随着润滑油氧化产物分子量的提高,其均方位移不断降低。大分子润滑油氧化产物还可以使基础油分子的运动能力降低,二者之间的相互作用能随着大分子润滑油氧化产物分子量的增大而升高。分子量较大的润滑油氧化产物可以对更多的基础油分子产生更强的限制作用,因此其可以导致基础油运动能力降低的更多。大分子润滑油氧化产物之间可以通过氢键形成聚集体,氢键的数量与温度有关。

隔壁塔中新型气相分配器的多相流模拟及控制机制
胡雨奇 李晓冉 李春利
2020, 22(3):  109-118. 
摘要 ( 83 )   PDF (1868KB) ( 155 )  
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在隔壁塔中加入了以科恩达效应为基础的新型气相分配器并以此建模利用Fluent进行多相流模拟。结果显示在加入液相的情况下,新型气相分配器依然遵循科恩达效应。即气相从分配器的细缝喷出带走其周围气相,在分配器下方形成负压,以此实现调控Rv的目的。类比气相分配器的工作原理,在预分馏塔的塔板之间选择一位置引出一定量气相,此相当于分配器喷出的气相。在主塔段输入相同量的气相,此相当于分配器入口处气相。通过改变输入或输出的气速来调节Rv。模拟结果显示,在温度或浓度控制结构的基础上加入此控制机制可以更好地实现气相分配的效果。