Please wait a minute...

当期目录

2020年 第22卷 第2期    刊出日期:2020-06-30
目录-Content
 Contents
2020, 22(2):  0. 
摘要 ( 43 )   PDF (133KB) ( 219 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
 Content of this issue
Review
Study on the technology clusters for direct utilization of carbon-rich natural gas and the construction of hybrid system for energy and chemicals production
吴青
2020, 22(2):  1-9. 
摘要 ( 126 )   PDF (828KB) ( 372 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
The carbon-rich natural gas is defined as the natural gas contains more than 20% content of carbon dioxide. It is reported that oil and gas resources in the South China Sea account for about one-third of China's total oil and gas resources, equivalent to 12% of the world's total. More than 83% of the oil and gas resources in this region are natural gas, which generally contains 20-80% or even more than 92% of carbon dioxide (CO2). To utilize these CO2-rich nature gas in traditional industrial and residential sector, a decarbonization process is necessary, which will cause a large amount of energy consumption, methane loss and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. In this paper, based on industrial production with annual capacity of million tons of methanol, ammonia/urea, etc., a platform technology is developed for direct, green, efficient and high-value mega-size utilization of the CO2-riched nature gas, that is the technology of CO2-riched natural gas dry reforming and hydrogen reaction. The following technologies are discussed, such as CO2-riched natural gas dry reforming integrating with Fischer-Tropsch to olefins (FTO) technology to produce high value-added linear alpha olefins (LAO) ; CO2-riched natural gas dry reforming integrating with low carbon olefin linear hydroformylation technology to produce higher carbon alcohols; direct methanol production from CO2 and hydrogen; and new cutting edge technology of light catalyzing process. In addition, simple techno-economic evaluations of two technologies mentioned above are discussed. The CO2-riched natural gas dry reforming integrates with FTO technology can achieve about 30% of internal rate return (IRR), while the low carbon olefin linear hydroformylation technology only has 2.57 recovery years when the capacity of 2-PH is 100 KTPA. Finally, based on the mega-size green and high-efficient CO2-rich natural gas direct utilization technology, a hybrid energy and chemical production system framework with good prospects is preliminarily designed. A modern industry zone with annual capacity of more than 10 million tons of CO2 converted to high value-added products is underway.
沥青质聚集体的解聚分离方法综述和探析
蔡新恒 龙军 董明 王威 侯焕娣 田松柏
2020, 22(2):  10-20. 
摘要 ( 105 )   PDF (894KB) ( 539 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
沥青质在原油、渣油体系中常以分子聚集体的形式存在,要研究沥青质的分子组成和结构以及含沥青质重油的加工,基础是要实现沥青质分子聚集体的解聚、分离。基于此,针对沥青质分子聚集体中存在的分子间相互作用(力),从良溶剂稀释、消除聚集作用位点、适度热作用、超声波作用及碰撞诱导解离等五个方面阐述了沥青质分子聚集体解离方法及进展,进一步介绍了基于沥青质分子极性、分子尺寸、酸碱性以及反应性等方面开展沥青质分子水平分离的方法及进展。
Scientific Research
基于化学反应区的渣油加氢反应动力学创新模型
张奎 戴立顺 聂红 邵志才 刘涛 邓中活
2020, 22(2):  21-29. 
摘要 ( 103 )   PDF (891KB) ( 570 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Based on the characteristics of composition and hydrotreating reactions of residue, new definitions of virtual molecular-group components about CH and CH2 are proposed here. The new reaction, hydrogenation of CH to CH2 (HDCH), can be used to represent the change of C and H with reaction conditions in residue hydrotreating. Meanwhile, by using the lumping approach, the kinetic models of HDCH, HDS, HDN, HDCCR, HDM, HDNi and HDV reactions are established. They are key components of the new kinetic model for residue hydrotreating based on chemical reaction sections. During the process of constructing the kinetic model, the goodness-to-fit (R2) between test data and model data is set as target value, and the parameters of the kinetic model can be calculated accurately. In verification test, the predict content of H, S, N, CCR, M, Ni and V obtained using the kinetic model can match well with the test data.
Rapid quantitative determination of isoprene monomer in living Taraxacum kok-saghyz by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
Tong Xiang Tianyang Guo Xi Zhang Yunhan Chen 董益阳 Jichuan Zhang Qiang Ma 张立群
2020, 22(2):  30-36. 
摘要 ( 145 )   PDF (324KB) ( 467 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS) is one of the second natural rubber-bearing plants suitable for large-scale biochemical engineering development in recent years. Natural Rubber (NR) in TKS is mainly composed of cis-1,4-polyisoprene, a natural organic macromolecular compound, which is the metabolic end product of isoprenoids in plants. In this paper, a rapid and quantitative ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of macromolecules biosynthesis substrate (dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, DMAPP) and initiator (farnesyl pyrophosphate, FPP) in TKS. Kromasil C18 chromatographic column was used for separation, and the multi-reaction monitoring mode (MRM) of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) was used for detection. Quantification was done by external calibration method. The results showed that limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of DMAPP were 2.42 μg/L and 7.26 μg/L, and the LOQ and the LOD of FPP were 1.02 μg/L and 3.05 μg/L. At the concentrations of 1-1000 μg/L, both analytes had good determination coefficients (> 0.999) of calibration curve. The recoveries of DMAPP and FPP were between 99.0% and 117.1%. In real samples detection, the contents of DMAPP and FPP in TKS samples were between 23.32~82.77 μg/L and 12.03~85.67 μg/L, respectively. Thus, this is a reliable method to quantify DMAPP and FPP in TKS.
Properties of a High Hydrolysis Stability Nitrogenous benzo-heterocyclic borate
田莹 吕涯
2020, 22(2):  37-45. 
摘要 ( 88 )   PDF (548KB) ( 349 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Influence of wind deviation angle on n-hexane evaporation loss of internal floating-roof tanks
黄维秋 徐曼琳 李飞 纪虹 方洁
2020, 22(2):  46-55. 
摘要 ( 113 )   PDF (1156KB) ( 427 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
With the increasing attention to environmental protection, it is still necessary strictly to control the oil evaporation loss from the IFRT (internal floating-roof tank) to the atmosphere. Based on the wind-tunnel experiments and the CFD numerical models and taking n-hexane for the example of oil, the effects of the WDAs (wind deviation angles) on airflow distribution, the wind speed, n-hexane vapor concentration and evaporation loss rate in the IFRT were investigated, and the mass transfer of the vapor-air was analyzed. The results are shown as follows: when the WDA is 00, the vapor concentration in the gas space above the floating deck is the lowest; when the WDA is 22.50, the evaporation rate is the largest; when the WDA is 450, the concentration is the highest, but the evaporation rate is the smallest. It is recommended to arrange the vent to the wind direction with 450 to reduce the evaporation loss.
一种新的高含水原油粘壁温度预测方法
崔悦 黄启玉 张燕 赵甲递 郑海敏 程显闻
2020, 22(2):  56-63. 
摘要 ( 96 )   PDF (696KB) ( 454 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
在原油运输过程中,当集油管路运行参数设置不当时,凝油团会粘附在管壁上,导致井回压升高甚至管道堵塞,严重影响地面系统运行安全。粘壁温度是保障地面系统经济、安全的重要边界条件。本文提出了一种高含水原油集油管路粘壁温度的有效预测方法。基于能量耗散理论,将搅拌模拟罐的平均剪切速率与环道系统进行对应,以期利用搅拌模拟系统代替环道系统对粘壁温度进行预测,并利用搅拌系统和环道系统分别研究了含水率和剪切速率对粘壁温度的影响。结果显示,两套系统的实验结果吻合度较高,最大绝对偏差为3.30℃,平均绝对偏差为2.18℃,并进行了误差分析,以期为地面集油系统的方案设计提供有力支持。
Process Research
聚醚胺酸性离子液体温和高选择性催化制备烷基化汽油
高旭 于凤丽 王志平 解从霞
2020, 22(2):  64-70. 
摘要 ( 80 )   PDF (502KB) ( 487 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Raney Ni/Al2O3吸附剂对苯吸附脱硫的动力学和热力学研究
曹永正 罗国华 赵冉 张蓝溪 徐新
2020, 22(2):  71-78. 
摘要 ( 105 )   PDF (664KB) ( 388 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Simulation and Optimization
RHO: A software tool for targeting and design of refinery hydrogen networks
王稳策 廖祖维 崔久涛 孙婧元 蒋斌波 王靖岱 阳永荣 冯宝林
2020, 22(2):  79-85. 
摘要 ( 128 )   PDF (497KB) ( 478 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
Hydrogen management is important for refineries to improve their business efficiency. Various approaches such as pinch analysis and mathematical programming have been employed in the management of hydrogen system. However, it is not easy for site engineers to implement these technics, due to the complicated procedures. At this point, it is necessary to develop a software that implements the proposed methodologies automatically, while it is the goal of this work. The presented refinery hydrogen system optimization software (RHO) is a web based system. It is developed in the Java Web environment, where subroutines of mathematical model coded in GAMS software can be easily called. RHO could generate graphics of both the hydrogen pinch diagram and the hydrogen distribution network. Purifiers as well as the physical distances between units are considered in the optimization model. In addition, there is a special module for the calculation of membrane separation, which is important in the hydrogen network. The functions and the interfaces of the software are illustrated via practical cases. Case studies show the effectiveness of the RHO software.
基于FLNN的空冷器系统氯化铵结晶温度预测
金浩哲 顾镛 任佳 吴响曜 全建勋 许霖风一
2020, 22(2):  86-92. 
摘要 ( 156 )   PDF (707KB) ( 432 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
空冷器是炼油工业的核心设备,氯化铵(NH4Cl)沉积腐蚀是空冷器系统的主要失效形式之一。本文通过深层机理和实验分析,选择铵盐结晶温度作为沉积腐蚀的关键决策变量。由于函数链神经网络适合处理非线性问题,且迭代速度快,采用函数链神经网络作为模型的基本算法。为了提高模型的泛化性能,建立了一个带小规范权重的混合函数链神经网络。利用训练得到的模型对酸水汽提塔空冷器NH4Cl结晶温度进行了预测。实验结果表明,与PLS模型,BPNN模型和传统FLNN模型相比,改进的FLNN算法具有更好的泛化性能。
Modelling of microchannel reactors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
曹慧丽 唐晓津
2020, 22(2):  93-101. 
摘要 ( 123 )   PDF (972KB) ( 569 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
费-托合成是煤液化,天然气液化和生物质液化的重要步骤。近年来,将微通道反应器用于费托合成反应已经受到了广泛的关注。由于无法轻松地将热电偶和其他传感器放置在微通道反应器中,因此建立一个与实验数据高度匹配的模型非常重要。本文主要介绍了费托合成微通道反应器模型的建立和求解。列出了一般的传质微分方程,传热微分方程和相关参数(例如反应速率,扩散系数和对流传热系数)。为了求解模型,本文综述了数值求解法,例如CFD模拟法和编程法。建议将CFD模拟法和编程法相结合以得出更准确的计算结果。
流化床气体分布板结构对流化特性的影响
张光别
2020, 22(2):  102-110. 
摘要 ( 113 )   PDF (752KB) ( 475 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
Lubrication Research
油溶性氢氧化镧/氧化石墨烯纳米复合物的制备、分散和摩擦学性能
吴波 张强强 宋晖 杨炳训 田明 胡献国
2020, 22(2):  111-121. 
摘要 ( 87 )   PDF (2198KB) ( 410 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
植物油基润滑油基础油多酯衍生物的制备与表征
李雄 陈立功
2020, 22(2):  122-128. 
摘要 ( 115 )   PDF (424KB) ( 407 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
过量的石油基润滑油流入到环境中,会造成环境的污染。以植物油为原料,通过水解、酯化、环氧化和开环“四步法”制备可生物降解的多酯衍生物(OFANE)作为石油基润滑油的替代品。测定了OFANE的粘度、酸值、倾点、蒸发损失、和氧化诱导期等理化性质。结果表明,OFANE具有良好的低温流动性和热氧化安定性。同时测定了带有二聚酸添加剂的OFANE的摩擦学性能。最后的生物降解实验表明,OFANE具有良好的生物降解性且表现出巨大的替代石油基润滑油的潜力。