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2019年 第21卷 第2期    刊出日期:2019-06-30
Scientific Research
 Content
2019, 21(2):  0-1. 
摘要 ( 62 )   PDF (187KB) ( 403 )  
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  Content
Review
Intelligent Transformation and Upgrading of Oil Refining & Petrochemical Industries in China: Investigation & Application
吴青
2019, 21(2):  1-9. 
摘要 ( 184 )   PDF (542KB) ( 1452 )  
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The oil refining and petrochemical industry in China has made great achievements after decades of development, and its capacity has already ranked second in the world. However, the refining industry is suffering some challenges, such as severe overcapacity at present, and has entered a new economic normal, in which the technological progress developed rapidly, the request of green and low-carbon development is stricter, the market competition is increasingly fiercer and the profit margins are gradually narrowing. In such a situation, informatization and its new technologies are driving the significant reforming of manufacturing patterns, marketing patterns, management and decision-making patterns. Intelligent development is the inevitable choice for the transformation and upgrading of oil refining & petrochemical industry. It is suggested that the intelligent evaluating model and method should be adopted to enterprise’s intelligentializing transformation and upgrading by laying solid foundation of digital refinery and implementing of digital upgrading.
Research Progress in Refining Process for Production of Caprolactam by Beckman Rearrangement Reaction
王皓 张得江 谢丽 范瑛琦 罗一斌 宗保宁
2019, 21(2):  10-18. 
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Caprolactam, which is mainly produced by Beckmann rearrangement reaction, is an important chemical material. The strict specifications of caprolactam products make the refining process of caprolactam extremely important. According to the different rearrangement process, the refining process of caprolactam is also different. The main refining sequence of liquid phase rearrangement products is extraction, ion exchange, hydrogenation and distillation. The refining process of gas phase rearrangement products is mainly through distillation, crystallization and hydrogenation. In this paper, the research progress of caprolactam refining technology will be summarized according to different rearrangement reaction processes, which will provide reference for the selection of caprolactam refining process.
Scientific Research
纳米SSZ-13分子筛的合成及其混合基质膜CO2/CH4分离性能的研究
刘建强 罗一斌 李明罡 舒兴田
2019, 21(2):  19-26. 
摘要 ( 155 )   PDF (784KB) ( 893 )  
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Raney Cu/Al2O3催化剂催化甘油氢解制1,2-丙二醇的研究
张蓝溪 王辉国 李宁 罗国华 徐新
2019, 21(2):  27-34. 
摘要 ( 170 )   PDF (554KB) ( 784 )  
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以拟薄水铝石和铜铝合金粉为原料,经过成型、干燥、焙烧、抽铝活化等步骤制备出可用于固定床连续加氢反应的新型负载型骨架铜催化剂(Raney Cu/Al2O3),采用XRD、H2-TPR、SEM等对Raney Cu/Al2O3催化剂进行了理化表征,以丙三醇氢解反应生成1,2-丙二醇的反应为探针,对所制备的负载型骨架铜催化剂的氢解性能进行评价。结果表明:拟薄水铝石和铜铝合金粉经成型、850?C空气氛围中焙烧后制得的催化剂前驱体中,CuAl2为主要物相,部分CuAl2中的金属铝在焙烧过程中与空气中的氧发生氧化,生成了对催化剂强度具有贡献的α-Al2O3晶相,而未被氧化的CuAl2相经随后的强碱抽铝活化后,产生了具有甘油氢解活性的骨架铜结构。考察了反应温度、反应压力、体积空速、氢油比等条件在不同溶剂体系中对催化性能的影响。在215 ?C、3 MPa H2、体积空速为1.0 h-1、氢油比为500、甘油溶液浓度为20 wt%的反应条件下,甘油转化率和1,2-丙二醇选择性分别为30.9%和91.4%;甘油醇溶液浓度为20wt%的反应条件下,甘油转化率和1,2-丙二醇选择性为99%和73.3.6%。
ZnO载体的形貌对Ni/ZnO催化剂脱硫性能和再生性能的影响
康蕾 王海彦
2019, 21(2):  35-43. 
摘要 ( 147 )   PDF (643KB) ( 871 )  
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Ni/ZnO脱硫催化剂由于其脱硫精度高,辛烷值损失小而被广泛关注。但是在脱硫过程中存在ZnO易于失活、活性组分Ni易于团聚等问题,进而影响了催化剂的使用性能。为了克服这些问题,载体ZnO的改性被广泛研究,然而关于载体ZnO的形貌和粒子尺寸对催化剂性能以及活性组分Ni的分散程度的影响却报道较少。本文通过控制碱浓度分别合成了粒状、短棒状和纳米线状ZnO,并以其为载体,负载金属镍后,制备成脱硫催化剂,通过X射线衍射,N2吸附-脱附,SEM,TEM等方法对催化剂进行了表征;并以正庚烷-噻吩为模型化合物,考察了其脱硫性能。结果表明the morphology , and size of ZnO support对催化剂的脱硫性能具有很大的影响,以线状形貌的ZnO为载体制备的脱硫催化剂具有最好的脱硫性能,其脱硫率高达98.2%,这主要是由于ZnO载体的线状结构有效抑制了表面Ni原子的团聚,降低了金属活性组分镍的粒子尺寸,提高了其在载体表面的分散度;同时纳米线状结构减小了噻吩在反应过程中的扩散阻力,提供了有利于硫转移和扩散的通道,因而使其在脱硫反应过程和再生性过程中具有了良好的性能。
Catalyst Research
不同溶剂合成的HKUST-1及其甲烷贮存情况
宫晓杰 张丹 段林海 孟秀红 林文杰
2019, 21(2):  44-49. 
摘要 ( 192 )   PDF (485KB) ( 771 )  
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采用不同溶剂制备了金属有机骨架材料HKUST-1。通过扫描电镜(SEM),X射线衍射仪(XRD),N2吸-脱附仪对所制备的材料进行结构表征。并且,检测了有机配体在溶剂中的溶解度及样品的甲烷吸附量。结果表明由溶剂N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)制备的HKUST-1呈现出较好的甲烷吸附能力。研究进一步表明有机配体在DMF中较高的溶解度及由DMF制备的HKUST-1较大的比表面积促进了材料的甲烷吸附量的提高。本文为制备高效的甲烷吸附材料提供了一个新思路。
高效三相光催化剂BiVO4@C3N4@GO的制备及性能研究
柳艳修 郭智 王立娟 吕文学 宋华 王雪芹
2019, 21(2):  50-57. 
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NBiVO4, BiVO4@C3N4 and BiVO4@C3N4@GO composite photocatalysts were synthesized, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the degradation of the methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation and BiVO4@C3N4@GO ternary composite outperformed the binary composites, BiVO4@C3N4 and BiVO4. Then the effects of catalyst dosage, initial pH, and initial methylene blue concentration on degradation process were investigated systematically. The improvement of visible-light photocatalytic degradation performance was attributed to the enhanced visible light absorption, larger surface area, higher adsorption ability, and prolonged lifetime of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The recycle experiments results showed that the BiVO4@C3N4@GO composite have excellent photo-stability for MB photocatalytic degradation.
Synthesis of MOR/SAPO-11 composite molecular sieve via seeded crystallization and its hydroisomerization performance
SUN Na 王海彦 马宇翔 杨占旭 kanglei
2019, 21(2):  58-66. 
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A core/shell structure MOR/SAPO-11 composite catalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method with zeolite MOR as the seeded crystallization. The catalyst was thoroughly characterized with regards to its crystal structure, elemental composition, surface area, pore volume and acidity. In addition, the catalytic performance of the as-obtained MOR/SAPO-11 was tested by hydroisomerization of n-dodecane. MOR/SAPO-11 exhibited higher i-dodecane selectivity compared to pristine MOR and its physical mixture with SAPO-11. The results indicate that the properties and catalytic performance of the composite molecular sieve were quite different from those of the pure zeolites and the mechanical mixture. Compared with the mechanical mixture, the combination of MOR and SAPO-11 by chemical bonds was more tightly bound in the composite molecular sieve with a core-shell structure. The acidity and pore structure of the composite were favorable for catalytic performance in the hydroisomerization of n-dodecane.
Process Research
Evaluation of inocula and packing material for acceleration of start-up in biofilters
李超
2019, 21(2):  67-75. 
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Several strategies with different combination of inocula and packing material were investigated to obtain the optimal start-up time and elimination capacity (EC) in toluene biofiltration. The inocula contained the activated sludge and toluene degrading bacteria, and the packing material consisted of different mixing ratios of peat and wood chips. A final toluene load of 21.2 g/(m3·h) was attained step by step in four parallel biofilters. A shortest start-up time of 15 days and a highest EC of 17.0 g/(m3·h) were observed in the biofilter B-4, which was inoculated with a special microbial consortium consisting of three strains of toluene degrading bacteria and was packed with the mixture of peat and wood chips at a ratio of 80:20 (w/w). These results indicated that inoculating pre-acclimatized microbes dramatically shortened the start-up time, and such a composition of packing material could maintain an appropriate environment (with the bed porosity and water content equating to 0.45 and 1.96, respectively) for the growth of dominant toluene degrading bacteria in the biofilter.
Process Research
图像识别技术在催化裂化催化剂显微诊断中的研究与应用
李璐婕
2019, 21(2):  76-84. 
摘要 ( 152 )   PDF (1086KB) ( 699 )  
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利用图像处理与识别技术辅助工程师进行FCC催化剂显微照片,通过对图像快速分析,快捷地获得催化剂性质分析结果,可为FCC装置可能出现的事故进行预警。在本文中,详细介绍了通过图像识别技术,更好地对催化裂化催化剂进行诊断。
Process Research
Study on flue gas desulfurization process with selective SO2 removal by N-formylmorpholine
隆建 杨明磊 范琛 钟伟民
2019, 21(2):  85-94. 
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Absorptive separation for resource utilization by selective SO2 removal from flue gas is a potential method applicable in practice. A flue gas desulfurization process for SO2 utilization by selective absorption in a lab-scale absorption tower at atmospheric pressure using N-formylmorpholine as absorbent is developed to capture and concentrate the SO2 from flue gas, where the CO2 content is several orders higher than that of SO2. The investigation of the effects of different operating conditions on the SO2 removal efficiency shows that SO2 removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by increasing NFM concentration, or decreasing the absorption temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas-liquid ratio, or SO2 concentration in absorption solution. At an optimum operating conditions (40℃,superficial gas velocity <0.0165 m/s, gas-liquid ratio 200~250, SO2 concentration in lean NFM solution 0~10 mg/L, NFM concentration 3 mol/L), SO2 removal rate is over 99.5% while the absorption of CO2 is negligible. Similarly, SO2 removal rate is as high as 99.5% in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles. Desorption experiment results indicate the absorption of sulfur dioxide is completely reversible and release of SO2 from NFM is very easy and rapid at 104 ℃. Absorption simulation result for industrial catalytic cracking regeneration flue gas desulfurization process shows that 98.0% SO2 is absorbed in the absorber and most of them is released in the desorber. The experimental and simulated results show the desulfurization ability and regenerability of NFM solution is encouraging for the development of FGD process to capture the SO2 from flue gas.Absorptive separation for resource utilization by selective SO2 removal from flue gas is a potential method applicable in practice. A flue gas desulfurization process for SO2 utilization by selective absorption in a lab-scale absorption tower at atmospheric pressure using N-formylmorpholine as absorbent is developed to capture and concentrate the SO2 from flue gas, where the CO2 content is several orders higher than that of SO2. The investigation of the effects of different operating conditions on the SO2 removal efficiency shows that SO2 removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by increasing NFM concentration, or decreasing the absorption temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas-liquid ratio, or SO2 concentration in absorption solution. At an optimum operating conditions (40℃,superficial gas velocity <0.0165 m/s, gas-liquid ratio 200~250, SO2 concentration in lean NFM solution 0~10 mg/L, NFM concentration 3 mol/L), SO2 removal rate is over 99.5% while the absorption of CO2 is negligible. Similarly, SO2 removal rate is as high as 99.5% in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles. Desorption experiment results indicate the absorption of sulfur dioxide is completely reversible and release of SO2 from NFM is very easy and rapid at 104 ℃. Absorption simulation result for industrial catalytic cracking regeneration flue gas desulfurization process shows that 98.0% SO2 is absorbed in the absorber and most of them is released in the desorber. The experimental and simulated results show the desulfurization ability and regenerability of NFM solution is encouraging for the development of FGD process to capture the SO2 from flue gas.
Lubrication Research
满足GF-6汽油机油规格要求的低黏度发动机油抗磨性能研究
谢欣 贾秋莲 张建荣
2019, 21(2):  95-102. 
摘要 ( 237 )   PDF (929KB) ( 1158 )  
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GF-6汽油机油规格将在2020年开始首次认证。为了满足GF-6规格要求,本研究进行了自主开发低粘度发动机油的抗磨性能的研究。GF-6研发油品实验室模拟老化后,采用Falex V型块摩擦试验机和HFRR高频往复摩擦试验机进行了抗磨性能的评价,对摩擦表面采用X射线光电子能谱进行了分析研究。GF-6研发油显著的低温抗磨性能在程序IVB发动机台架试验结果上得到了验证。研究结果表明在汽油机油配方中选择合适的钙盐清净剂种类和用量,可以显著降低程序IVB发动机台架试验中凸轮和挺杆的磨损失重。在IVB发动机台架试验中,在油品老化的碱值下降和酸值上升交叉点后,凸轮挺杆发生明显的磨损。
Enhanced biodegradability and tribological properties of mineral base oil by caprylic methyl diethanolamine phosphate ester
丁建华 方建华 陈波水 刘坪 范兴钰 陈然
2019, 21(2):  103-109. 
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The influences of synthetic caprylic methyl diethanolamine phosphate ester (abbreviated as MDEACP) on biodegradability and tribological properties of 400SN mineral base oil were studied. The biodegradability of the neat base oil and the oil doped with MDEACP were determined on a biodegradation tester. The tribological properties of the neat base oil and the oil doped with MDEACP were evaluated on a four-ball tester. Moreover, the worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The results revealed that MDEACP significantly promoted the biodegradation of the mineral base oil. Furthermore, MDEACP enhanced the anti-wear properties, friction-reducing properties and extreme pressure properties of the base oil. It was mainly attributed to the formation of the complex boundary lubrication film resulted from the adsorption and tribochemical reactions of MDEACP on the friction surface.
Simulation and Optimization
Numerical Simulation of Optimization of Mixing Tank for RMAC Reactor
鲍迪 唐晓津 朱振兴
2019, 21(2):  110-117. 
摘要 ( 131 )   PDF (628KB) ( 849 )  
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For the mixing tank for RMAC reactor, the CFD simulation was employed to simulate the flow field in mixing tank. The dispersion of liquid-liquid phase in the mixing tank and the power of turbines were investigated. The simulation results show that compared with the original double-layer impeller, the A310-swept double-layer impeller reduces liquid heterogeneous degree by 27.5% and stirring power by 3.25%. The influence of rotation speed on heterogeneous degree and stirring power was investigated, and the critical rotation speed was obtained. The optimal rotation speed is 240 rpm. The heterogeneous degree is 0.19 and the minimum stirring power is 10.89W. By optimizing the impeller selection and process conditions, the overall performance of the mixing tank can be significantly improved.
Optimization of dividing wall column with heat transfer process across the wall for feed properties variation
胡雨奇 李春利
2019, 21(2):  118-124. 
摘要 ( 138 )   PDF (694KB) ( 745 )  
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Currently most of the dividing wall column (DWC) designs are based on the model in which the heat transfer process across the dividing wall is ignored, which influences the static simulation and dynamic control in subsequent application of DWC. This paper investigates the thermal-coupled effect across the wall and the optimal heat transfer region of the wall for enhancing the energy saving effect of DWC; and also studies the effects of feed thermal condition (q) and middle component composition of feed (cB) on heat transfer process, optimal heat transfer region and maximum heat transfer quantity across the wall. The simulation results show that the maximum heat transfer quantity across the wall and potential for energy saving increase with the increase of q; while with the limitation of temperature difference across the wall, the beneficial heat transfer effect between certain range of stages which are involved in optimal heat transfer region cannot be realized completely for specific value of q. Besides, compared with q, changing cB doesn't change the degree of realizing the beneficial heat transfer effect, but brings the variation of liquid split ratio (Rl) and vapor split ratio (Rv). Thus, for achieving maximum energy-saving effect of DWC, different q and cB need to find its own corresponding suitable heat transfer process across the wall.