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2018年 第20卷 第3期    刊出日期:2018-09-30
Process Research
One-pot Synthesis of 6-Hydroxyhexanoic Acid from Cyclohexanone Catalyzed by Dealuminated HBEA Zeolite with Aqueous 30wt% H2O2 Solution
夏长久 赵毅 林民 朱斌 彭欣欣 代振宇 罗一斌 舒兴田
2018, 20(3):  1-6. 
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One-pot synthesis of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid from cyclohexanone via integrated Baeyer-Villiger oxidation and ring opening reaction catalyzed by dealuminated HBEA zeolite has been developed. Under optimized conditions, the cyclohexanone conversion and 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid selectivity are over 95%, respectively. The excellent catalytic performance is attributed to the activation of carbonyl groups of cyclohexanone and the fast hydrolyzed ring opening of ε-caprolactone by both Lewis acid and Br?nsted acid sites under aqueous conditions.
Conversion of biomass to hydrocarbon-rich bio-oil via microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis: A review
王允圃 张淑梅 余桢婷 姜林 刘玉环 阮榕生 付桂明
2018, 20(3):  7-16. 
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Pyrolysis of biomass for hydrocarbon-rich fuel method remains challenging in terms of conversion of multifunctional biomass with high oxygen content and low thermal stability into a high-quality compound with high amount of hydrocarbon, low oxygen content, few functional groups, and high thermal stability. This study offers a promising prospect to derive hydrocarbon-rich oil through microwave-assisted fast catalytic pyrolysis by improving the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/Ceff) of the raw materials. The proposed technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through molecular sieve catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize the research progress on microwave copyrolysis and microwave catalytic copyrolysis and their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of optimizing H/Ceff, microwave absorbent, and HZSM-5 catalyst in microwave copyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for the use of this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils.
大数据技术在高压加氢换热器运行状态评估中的应用
李璐婕
2018, 20(3):  17-23. 
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高压加氢换热器是炼油厂的重要装置,但高压加氢换热器面临着铵盐腐蚀导致泄露的问题,因此对加氢换热器的运行状态评估十分重要。针对使用传统方法进行加氢换热器运行状态评估的不足的问题,本文提出了一种基于大数据的高压加氢换热器运行状态评估的方法。对于工业界常见的噪声数据,本文提出了自动化的噪声区间检测算法。对于传感器参数维度高、存在不相关维度的问题,本文提出了基于皮尔森系数的关健参数检测算法。最后,本文提出了一种基于主成份的系统健康打分算法,辅助现场施工员评估高压加氢换热器健康状况。基于大数据技术的高压加氢换热装置的运行状态评估,有助于帮助施工人员更准确掌握工业系统状况,对于故障的预警有积极指导意义。
Thermodynamic analysis on the formation of low-carbon olefins by coal gasification coupling C1 reaction
徐静 屠楠 刘通
2018, 20(3):  24-31. 
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The traditional coal-to-light-olefins process requires a long process flow and an enrmous energy consumption. In contrast, the process of directly combining the coal gasification reaction with the C1 synthesis reaction to generate low-carbon olefins can shorten the process flow, save energy and reduce the consumption of raw materials. Therefore, the complex reaction system of the coal gasification coupling C1 reaction was analyzed based on the principles of thermodynamics. The results show that an increase in the temperature is beneficial for the generation of hydrocarbons with high carbon-atom contents, where the alkane yield is higher than the alkene yield. The complex reaction system consisting of C, H2O, CO, CO2, H2, C2H4, C3H6 and C4H8 was studied, and the obtained results indicate that when the optimum molar ratio of C2~C4 olefins is adopted as the optimal objective function, the optimum temperature is approximately 648 K, the pressure is 0.1 MPa, the feed ratio is approximately 0.6, and the maximum mole fraction of the olefins is approximately 28.24%. The thermodynamic simulation and calculation of the complex reaction system can provide a basis for the determination and optimization of actual process conditions and are therefore of great theoretical and practical significance.
Scientific Research
Structural Characterization of Petroleum Molecules by CID FT-ICR MS with Narrow Isolation Window
刘玲 张祎玮 张智华 章群丹 侯焕娣 田松柏 王威
2018, 20(3):  32-41. 
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High resolution tandem mass spectrometry has been applied to obtain the structure information of petroleum samples. Here, we report a method for structure characterization of crude oil molecules by collision-induced dissociation (CID) technology combined with high-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The ion isolation window was narrowed down to 1 Da to distinguish the complex homologues in petroleum. Aromatic model compounds and crude oil samples were measured by CID FT-ICR MS at different collision energy. The bond cleavage mechanism of model compounds with alkyl side-chains was found to be related to the size of the aromatic rings. The fragmentation of model compounds with archipelago structures depended on the length of the bridge alkylene chain. The prevalent reaction pathway of model compounds with naphthenic rings was mainly determined by the position of naphthenic rings in the molecules. On the basis of the bond cleavage mechanisms, the structure differences of two crude oils were recognized as different content of naphthenic rings by CID technology with 1 Da isolation window. NMR analysis was also applied to confirm the CID results. This study exhibits great potential of CID FT-ICR MS with narrow isolation window in the structural characterization of crude oil molecules.
XPS和 TPR-MS表征确认工业S Zorb待生剂上的NixSy
袁蕙 邱丽美 徐广通 忻睦迪 史延强 陈帅 邹亢
2018, 20(3):  42-47. 
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采用X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、程序升温还原质谱联用(TPR-MS)和X射线晶体衍射(XRD)研究工业S Zorb待生剂镍物种的存在状态。XRD方法只能给出长程有序的物相信息和镍的晶粒大小的信息,检测不到NixSy 的存在,而新开发的XPS和TPR-MS表征方法确认了NixSy的稳定存在。氩离子溅射XPS对Ni物种的深度分布研究发现NixSy主要以非晶相存在于工业S Zorb待生剂的表层中,其所占百分比随工况条件不同稍有变化。这证实了NixSy并不是反应的过渡态而是稳定的中间体,为S Zorb反应机理的阐明提供依据,也为S Zorb剂脱硫和烯烃加氢选择性的调控提供新的思路。
低共熔离子液体脱除焦化柴油中的碱性氮化物
刘洁 刘进博 李文深 龙文宇
2018, 20(3):  48-54. 
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制备低共熔离子液体四乙基溴化铵-丙二酸(物质的量比1:1),采用红外光谱和核磁共振氢谱对其结构进行表征,并以焦化柴油为原料考察该离子液体对碱性氮化物的脱除性能。结果表明四乙基溴化铵-丙二酸具有较好的碱氮脱除性能,在萃取时间30min,萃取温度30℃,剂油质量比1:1和沉降时间120min的条件下,碱氮脱除率可达93.6%,焦化柴油的碱氮含量降低到37μg/g。且该低共熔离子液体在回收利用4次后,在剂油质量比1:7的条件下,对碱性氮化物的脱除率仍可达62.9%,有较好的重复使用性能。
Investigation of Treating Phenol Contaminated Soil by Potassium Ferrate based on pH control
鲁正 张琰清 贾新 黄金 薛建良 庄洪利 刘广民
2018, 20(3):  55-61. 
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Catalyst Research
Study on Synthesis of Mesoporous M-MCM-48(M = Zr, Mg) and Their Isomerization Activity of n-Heptane
汪颖军 董秀丽 马守涛 张微
2018, 20(3):  62-72. 
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固相反应发制备体相镍钼组合物及其加氢脱氧性能研究
纪道玉 刘迪 张宗亮 徐冬梅 高鹏
2018, 20(3):  73-77. 
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Simulation and Optimization
应用于差压热耦合反应精馏水解乙酸甲酯过程的新型控制系统设计
李军 周昊 黄小侨 赵天龙 马占华 孙兰义
2018, 20(3):  85-95. 
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本文提出了应用于差压热耦合反应精馏水解乙酸甲酯过程的新型控制系统结构设计。本文首先使用Aspen Plus中的Radfrac模块完成过程的稳态模拟,并使用灵敏度分析为控制系统设计提供可靠依据。使用Aspen Dynamics设计控制系统并研究过程的控制效果,提出了基于进料比例与灵敏板温度控制的两个新控制结构。两个控制结构的特点在于使用更简单的控制器代替了传统的组分控制器,且产品在±20%的总进料流率/进料乙酸甲酯组分的扰动下可达到产品纯度要求。
Modeling and Heat Transfer Investigation of Heat Integrated Distillation Column
方静 王一晶 苏伟怡 轩碧涵 李春利
2018, 20(3):  96-105. 
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The high degree of reversibility of heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is thermodynamically interpreted by using entropy method. In this paper, heat transfer model and a more universal method to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient are proposed, through which the overall heat transfer coefficient of different elevation of column and under different operating conditions can be obtained before experiment. In the experiment study, the separation of a binary system of ethanol-water is carried out as a case study to verify the heat transfer model and the calculation method above. The close agreement among the calculation, simulation and experiment results suggests the applicability of the proposed model and the calculation method. Meanwhile, it is demonstrated that the HIDiC shows obvious improvement on entropy production and thermodynamic efficiency.
Lubrication Research
生物柴油碳烟对液体石蜡摩擦学行为影响的研究
李川 卫道柱 庄远 吴波 宋汝鸿 胡献国
2018, 20(3):  106-113. 
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通过自制碳烟捕集装置收集了生物柴油碳烟(BDS),采用四球摩擦磨损试验机考察了BDS对液体石蜡(LP)摩擦学行为的影响,并利用旋转黏度计考察了BDS对LP动力黏度的影响。借助FETEM、XRD、XPS、SEM/EDS和3D激光扫描显微镜探究了BDS的形貌、组成和摩擦学作用机理。结果表明:BDS是由平均粒径为35nm的颗粒组成的链状团聚体,BDS含有石墨层和无定形碳。BDS的含氧官能团为(C-O-C) 和 (C-O-H)。随着BDS在LP中的浓度增加,LP的动力黏度逐渐增大,最大无卡咬负荷先增加后稳定,钢球的平均磨斑直径逐渐增大,而平均摩擦系数先降低后升高。其摩擦学作用机理为:LP中低浓度BDS起到摩擦改进剂的作用;BDS浓度高时,BDS团聚体导致磨粒磨损增加并影响润滑油膜的作用,从而导致LP的减摩和抗磨性能降低。
两种新型苯并三氮唑衍生物在水-乙二醇液压液中的润滑特性对比研究
郑哲 王建华 方建华 江泽琦 谷科城
2018, 20(3):  114-124. 
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