Please wait a minute...

当期目录

2013年 第15卷 第2期    刊出日期:2013-06-30
目录
本期目录
2013, 15(2):  0-1. 
摘要 ( 1051 )   PDF (233KB) ( 3207 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
本期目录
Catalyst Research
第三代渣油加氢催化剂的开发及工业应用
胡大为 杨清河 戴立顺 赵新强
2013, 15(2):  1-5. 
摘要 ( 1281 )   PDF (449KB) ( 4181 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Based on the mechanism of resid hydrotreating reaction by coordinating the catalyst activity and stability, the diffusion mechanism and catalyst reactivity, the cost and catalyst performance, and the production and application requirements, the third-generation series catalysts for residue hydrotreating have been developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC. The new series RHT catalysts possess higher activity for HDS, HDM and HDCCR performance as well as longer run length. The commercial results for application of these catalysts have demonstrated that the new catalyst system performs better than the reference ones.
碳含量对S Zorb吸附剂活性的影响
徐莉
2013, 15(2):  6-10. 
摘要 ( 1457 )   PDF (1718KB) ( 3868 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
考察具有不同碳含量的S Zorb吸附剂的反应活性,并利用XRD、FT-IR及TG-MS表征含碳吸附剂的结构和组成,探讨吸附剂上碳的种类和形态。结果表明:使用过程中S Zorb吸附剂上会生成积碳,积碳含量是影响S Zorb吸附剂反应性能的重要因素,在保证吸附剂脱硫活性的前提下在吸附剂上保留一定的碳含量,有利于降低产品辛烷值的损失。
HZSM-5分子筛的碱处理对PtSn丙烷脱氢催化剂性能的影响
黄力 周诗健 周钰明 张一卫 徐隽 王丽
2013, 15(2):  11-18. 
摘要 ( 1383 )   PDF (558KB) ( 3921 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
通过对HZSM-5分子筛的碱液处理,制得具有微-介孔结构的ATZ多孔材料。由XRD、N2吸附脱附和NH3-TPD等表征手段的结果可知,碱处理后HZSM-5的物理化学性质变化明显,ATZ具有较高的外比表面积和较低的酸量。相比PtSn/HZSM-5催化剂,PtSn/ATZ显示了较高的丙烷脱氢性能,这可能是由于ATZ具有相对降低的酸量所致。此外,ATZ上介孔的存在有利于Pt金属颗粒的分散,减少了脱氢反应过程中Pt金属颗粒表面积碳的产生,从而提高了催化剂的脱氢性能。
以磺酰胺类为内给电子体的丙烯聚合催化剂
王亮 尹宝作 义建军 崔春明
2013, 15(2):  19-23. 
摘要 ( 1339 )   PDF (453KB) ( 3513 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Three sulfonyl aliphatic amines [(R2SO2)2NR1, viz.: compound 1, in which R1=Me, and R2=Ph; compound 2, in which R1=n-Bu, and R2=CF3; and compound 3, in which R1=C8H17, and R2=CF3] have been synthesized and employed as internal electron donors (IED) for the preparation of Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the polymerization of propylene. The contents of Ti, H and C in these catalysts have been determined by elemental analysis and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The effect of the structure and dosage of the electron donor, the Al/Ti ratio and the polymerization temperature on the catalyst performance has been studied. Under optimized conditions, the catalyst with a highest activity yielded polypropylene with high isotacticity in the absence of external electron donors.
生物还原法制备钯催化剂性能的研究
张峰 傅吉全
2013, 15(2):  24-30. 
摘要 ( 1251 )   PDF (4180KB) ( 3694 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
本文利用生物还原法作为钯活性组分的负载方法,制备了高分散度负载型Pd/MWCNTs和Pd/α–Al2O3系列催化剂。采用XRD,TEM,EDS和比表面表征手段,考察并分析了生物还原法和化学法制备钯催化剂的理化性能和催化作用差异的本质。通过活性评价反应,考察了催化剂的催化性能。结果表明,与化学负载法相比,生物法制备的催化剂具有钯纳米颗粒的粒径小,分散性好,不易团聚等特点,在苯乙烯加氢中表现出较高的活性和稳定性。
Preparation and Catalytic Performance of Potassium Titanate Used as Soot Oxidation Catalyst
高原 段林海 宋丽娟
2013, 15(2):  31-36. 
摘要 ( 1582 )   PDF (1564KB) ( 3731 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
To prepare potassium titanate catalyst, a novel citrate acid complex-combustion method using CH3COOK and Ti(OC4H9)4 as raw materials was developed. The crystalline phase and surface morphology of K2Ti2O5 were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The impact of some factors, such as the type of contact between K2Ti2O5 and soot, the content of water vapor and SO2 in exhaust, and the repeated use on catalytic activity of K2Ti2O5 were studied by temperature programmed reaction (TPR). A comparison between the new method and the reported ones on catalytic activity of potassium titanate was investigated. The results showed that K2Ti2O5 had high catalytic activity and good stability.
Scientific Research
甲醇与重油共炼多产低碳烯烃工艺的探索
宋宝梅
2013, 15(2):  37-41. 
摘要 ( 1463 )   PDF (358KB) ( 3246 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
采用固定流化床进行了甲醇与重油的催化裂化试验,考察了不同的甲醇掺入量和不同的掺入时间对催化裂化反应的影响,实验结果表明,当甲醇掺入量为12.5%时,可以得到较好的产物分布和较高的低碳烯烃产率,其中乙烯、丙烯、丁烯产率分别为5.47 %、28.93%、15.76 %,低碳烯烃总产率高达50.16 %。
Effects of Temperature Gradient and Cooling Rate on the Formation of Methane Hydrates in Coarse Sand
王英梅 吴青柏 张鹏 蒋观利
2013, 15(2):  42-52. 
摘要 ( 1325 )   PDF (2123KB) ( 3861 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
Abstract: Temperature gradient and cooling rate have the obvious effect on formation of methane hydrate. Formation process of methane hydrate in coarse sand is experimented to understand the relationship between temperature gradient and cooling rate Temperature gradient and cooling rate have an obvious effect on formation of methane hydrate. The process for formation of methane hydrate in coarse sand is monitored to understand the relationship between temperature gradient and cooling rate and nucleation, growth and distribution of methane hydrate by using the electrical resistivity method. The results show that the change of resistivity can better reflect the nucleation and growth and distribution of methane hydrate. Temperature gradient promotes the nucleation, formation, and formation rate of methane hydrate. At a temperature gradient of 0.11 ℃/cm, the rate of methane hydrate formation and saturation reaches a maximum. Cooling rate has little effect on the methane hydrate formation process. Judging from the outcome of final spatial distribution of methane hydrate, the cooling rate has an obvious but irregular effect in coarse sand. The effect of temperature gradient on distribution of methane hydrate in coarse sand is less than that of cooling rate. At a temperature gradient of 0.07 ℃/cm, methane hydrate is distributed uniformly in the sample. If the temperature gradient is higher or lower than this value, the hydrate is enriched in the upper layer of sample.nuclear, growth and distribution of methane hydrate by using the electrical resistivity method. The results show that the change of resistivity can better reflect the nuclear and growth and distribution of methane hydrate. Temperature gradient promotes the nucleation, formation, and formation rate of methane hydrate. At the temperature gradient of 0.11oC/cm, formation rate and hydrate saturation reach the maximum. Cooling rate has little effect on the formation process of methane hydrate. From the point of final spatial distribution of hydrate, cooling rate has an obvious but irregular effect in coarse sand. The effects of temperature gradient on distribution of hydrate in coarse sand are smaller than that of cooling rate. At the temperature gradient of 0.07oC/cm, hydrate is distributed uniformly in the sample. On the condition that the temperature gradient is higher or lower than this value, the hydrate is enriched in the upper layer of sample.
镍基、铁基和钴基载氧体在化学循环制氢中的性能研究
梁皓 张喜文 方向晨 苑宏刚
2013, 15(2):  53-58. 
摘要 ( 1344 )   PDF (675KB) ( 3738 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
Ni-based, Fe-based and Co-based oxygen carriers with perovskite oxides used as the supports were prepared by citric acid complexation method. The oxygen carriers were characterized by thermal analysis, H2-temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray diffraction methods. Performance tests were evaluated through Chemical-Looping Hydrogen Generation in a fixed-bed reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. The characterization results showed that all samples were composed of metal oxides and perovskite oxides. Performance results indicated that CH4 conversion over the oxygen carriers decreased in the following order: NiO/LaNiO3>Co2O3/LaCoO3>Fe2O3/LaFeO3. The ability of NiO/LaNiO3 and Fe2O3/LaFeO3 to decompose water was stronger than that of Co2O3/LaCoO3 as evidenced by our experiments. H2 amounting to 80 mL upon reacting on methane in every cycle could be completely oxidized by NiO/LaNiO3 at 900 ℃ in the period from the third cycle to the eighth cycle.
Experimental Study on Aqueous Phase Entrainment in a Mixer-settler with Double Stirring
王淑婵 张廷安 赵秋月 刘燕
2013, 15(2):  59-62. 
摘要 ( 1184 )   PDF (419KB) ( 3932 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
The mixer-settler is a core device of solvent extraction for separating rare earth elements. There are some adverse effects like high rare earth accumulation and poor production efficiency during industrial production. Current researches usually focus on changing the structure of the mixer-settler without making a breakthrough towards gravity clarification. In this paper, in order to improve the efficiency of clarification, a mixer-settler with double stirring mode was designed and manufactured by adding a stirring device in the settler after educing the volume of the settler. The innovation of this research involves adopting the ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer to investigate the quantity of aqueous phase entrainment at the settler outlet in order to measure the clarification degree. Experimental results show that the clarification effect with stirring is better than that without stirring. The clarification effect is ameliorated as the stirring speed increases. Generally, the clarification effect shows a best condition when the offset distance is 12.5 cm, making the phase entrainment reduced to less than 0.1%. When the clearance over the tank bottom is 7 cm and 10 cm, respectively, the quantity of aqueous phase entrainment is better than the case with a clearance of 4 cm. The results show that the stirring paddle close to the mixed phase zone can better promote the two-phase separation.
Simulation and Optimization
不同氢饱和度稠环芳烃开环裂化的分子模拟研究
王春璐 周涵 赵晓光 赵毅 王子军
2013, 15(2):  63-66. 
摘要 ( 1809 )   PDF (940KB) ( 4539 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
重质油深度加工的重点在于对重油中碳资源的有效利用。稠环芳烃(PAHs)作为生焦的前驱体,广泛存在与重油的胶质与沥青质中。PAHs的存在导致原油加工难度的提高,会降低液体和轻质油品的收率。促进热裂化并通过加氢抑制结焦的工艺研究如今正受到世界范围的加工企业广泛关注。工艺优化的核心关键在于,首先需对作为生焦前驱体的PAHs的反应规律加以探索。通过选取一些列不同加氢饱和度的稠环芳烃作为模型化合物代表重质油中的胶质、沥青质组分,接下来基于自由基反应机理设计热裂化反应,并通过密度泛函理论模拟计算反应过程并对过渡态进行搜索。通过获取的反应热力学、动力学数据对PAHs结构特征对反应趋势的影响加以分析总结表明,随着PAHs分子量的增加,热裂化的反应难度随之增加,通过加氢能够促进开环反应,但过度加氢对降低开环难度的促进作用有限。适度加氢能够提高轻质化的加工效率并降低加工成本。通过以上结论对加工工艺提出了对应的指导。
Application of Discrete Lumped Kinetic Modeling on Vacuum Gas Oil Hydrocracking
韩龙年 方向晨 彭冲 赵焘
2013, 15(2):  67-73. 
摘要 ( 1293 )   PDF (504KB) ( 5271 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
The kinetic model of vacuum gas oil (VGO) hydrocracking based on discrete lumped approach was investigated, and some improvement was put forward at the same time in this article. A parallel reaction scheme to describe the conversion of VGO into products (gases, gasoline, and diesel) proposed by Orochko was used. The different experimental data were analyzed statistically and then the product distribution and kinetic parameters were simulated by available data. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters were correlated based on the feed property, reaction temperature, and catalyst activity. An optimization code in Matlab 2011b was written to fine-tune these parameters. The model had a favorable ability to predict the product distribution and there was a good agreement between the model predictions and experiment data. Hence, the kinetic parameters indeed had something to do with feed properties, reaction temperature and catalyst activity.
脂肪酸对低硫柴油润滑性的影响:试验研究,密度泛函计算和分子动力学模拟
罗辉 范维玉 李阳 赵品晖 南国枝
2013, 15(2):  74-81. 
摘要 ( 1602 )   PDF (2470KB) ( 5702 )  
参考文献 | 相关文章 | 计量指标
The continuous reduction in sulfur content of fuels would lead to diesel fuel with poor lubricity which could result in engine pump failure. In the present work, fatty acids were adopted as lubricity additives for low-sulfur diesel fuel. It was attempted to correlate the molecular structures of fatty acids, such as chain length, saturation and hydroxylation, to their lubricity enhancement, which was evaluated by using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The efficiency order was supported by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The lubricity enhancing properties of fatty acids are mainly determined by the cohesive energy of adsorbed films formed on iron surface. The greater the cohesive energy, the more efficiently it is that the fatty acid enhance the lubricity of low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Environment Protection
耐热石油降解菌群的分离及鉴定
顾贵洲 李政 赵东风 赵朝成
2013, 15(2):  82-90. 
摘要 ( 1379 )   PDF (680KB) ( 4272 )  
相关文章 | 计量指标
从新疆克拉玛依石油污染土壤中分离获得一组耐热石油降解菌群KO8-2,其生长温度为45?65℃(最适生长温度为55℃)。变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)显示,KO8-2包含来自芽孢杆菌属、嗜热脂肪土芽孢杆菌属和梭状芽孢杆菌属的9株单菌。它们都属于嗜热菌,并且先前已被证明至少能够降解一种石油组分。由红外分光光度法、原油族组分分析和气相色谱法分析原油降解KO8-2。结果表明,在55°C、原油浓度为10g/ L条件下,菌群KO8-2能够利用64.33%的饱和烃,27.06%的芳香烃和13.24%的胶质,原油的去除效率达到58.73%。菌群KO8-2能够有效降解C19之前的组分,C20?C33的正构烷烃也得到明显的降解。降解前nC17/Pr和nC18/Ph的比率分别为3.12和3.87,而降解后该比率分别降低为0.21和0.38。与对照样品相比,经过60d的生物降解,菌群KO8-2在堆肥反应器中的除油效率达到50.12%。