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    1. 含模板剂的TS-1分子筛催化苯酚与乙酸酐合成乙酸苯酯
    吴国文 史春风 林民 朱斌
    中国炼油与石油化工    2014, 16 (04): 89-93.  
    摘要1801)      PDF(pc) (840KB)(7940)    收藏
    苯酚与乙酸酐在含有机结构导向剂的TS-1分子筛(TS-1-U)的催化下生成乙酸苯酯。通过对反应条件的考察得到,在苯酚与乙酸酐摩尔比为1:1.2,催化剂质量分数为6%,反应温度为70℃的条件下反应2.5h时,苯酚转化率可达96.5%,没有副产物生成。并且,尽管催化剂TS-1-U活性有所降低是难以避免的,但仍可以循环利用至少4次。
    相关文章 | 多维度评价
    2. 原油预脱硫工艺研究进展
    刘琳1 ,吕宏2 ,钱建华3 ,邢锦娟1
    中国炼油与石油化工   
    摘要3435)      PDF(pc) (132KB)(13648)    收藏
    随着原油资源的日益枯竭,世界原油含硫量日益增高,使得下游产品总硫含量也在增加,减低原油中硫含量问题越来越紧迫。因此,在原油阶段将硫除去具有重要意义。本文介绍了原油脱硫工艺技术研究的现状及进展,常用原油脱硫工艺技术有:碱洗法脱硫、干法气提脱硫和加氢脱硫等及新型组合式原油脱硫技术已在研究的有:电场下脱硫剂法、生物脱硫法、加氢-细菌催化法、微波-加氢催化法、超声波/微波-催化氧化法等,并探讨了其发展趋势。
    相关文章 | 多维度评价
    3. 胶体润滑油清净剂的新进展
    王永垒1 ,吾满江 艾力2
    中国炼油与石油化工   
    摘要2562)      PDF(pc) (161KB)(8994)    收藏
    超高碱值润滑油清净剂是润滑油重要的组成部分。近年来,随着实验设备的发展和提高,许多关于超高碱值清净剂的合成机理、胶体结构、酸中和机理及抗磨擦性能方面的文献被发表,这有助于我们更好地理解清净剂的制备和应用,并进一步提高超高碱值清净剂的各种性能。在将来润滑油清净剂工业中,使用生物可降解的植物油代替矿物油作为原料来合成环境友好的、多功能的润滑油清净剂将会是一个主要的发展方向。 本文主要介绍了胶体润滑油清净剂的最新进展
    相关文章 | 多维度评价
    4. 盐酸三乙胺-三氯化铝离子液体催化甲苯与氯代叔丁烷烷基化反应
    陈晗 罗国华 徐新 王衍力 夏贾贾
    中国炼油与石油化工    2013, 15 (1): 54-60.  
    摘要2037)      PDF(pc) (513KB)(6908)    收藏
    用盐酸三乙胺和无水三氯化铝合成了不同配比的Et3NHCl-AlCl3离子液体,研究了反应时间、反应温度、甲苯与离子液体的摩尔比、甲苯与氯代叔丁烷比对烷基化反应的影响。结果表明,Et3NHCl-AlCl3酸性离子液体具有较高的催化活性,良好的低温反应活性和对位选择性。得到了该反应优化反应条件:离子液体中AlCl3与Et3NHCl的摩尔比1.6,反应温度20℃,离子液体的用量为甲苯质量的10%,甲苯与氯代叔丁烷摩尔比2,反应10min。该条件下,氯代叔丁烷的转化率为98%,对叔丁基甲苯的选择性为82.5%。离子液体重复使用5次,其催化活性不变,离子液体再生后可循环使用。
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    5. 使用ASP试剂从印尼油砂中回收沥青
    李文深 郭小雯 刘洁
       2018, 20 (1): 110-115.  
    摘要225)      PDF(pc) (444KB)(1745)    收藏
    通过使用自制的ASP试剂从印尼油砂中回收沥青,研究了油砂沥青的分离条件。结果表明适宜的分离条件如下:混合温度80℃、混合时间40min、ASP试剂与油砂的质量比为4:10、浮选时间10min,在上述条件下,沥青回收率可达86%,尾砂中沥青残余率为6%。为了进一步降低尾砂的含油量,研究了尾砂中沥青含量与尾砂粒径的关系,结果表明:随着尾砂粒径的减小,尾砂的含油量降低。对尾砂研磨30min后,采用ASP试剂抽提法进一步处理,尾砂的含油量由5.47% 降到1.25%,符合排放要求。
    相关文章 | 多维度评价
    6. 石墨烯作为锂基润滑脂添加剂的摩擦学性能研究
    王晶 郭小川 何燕 蒋明俊 郭婉晴 张源涛 孙蓉
       2017, 19 (1): 46-54.  
    摘要628)      PDF(pc) (2743KB)(5141)    收藏
    利用四球机研究了石墨烯和石墨作为锂基润滑脂添加剂的摩擦学性能。采用扫描电镜和X射线光电子能谱研究了磨损表面的微观形貌和表面元素含量及化合态。结果表明石墨烯的添加使锂基润滑脂的摩擦学性能得到的显著的提升,摩擦过程中,摩擦副表面形成了石墨烯的吸附膜和层积膜以及由FeO, Fe2O3, FeOOH和LiOH组成的反应膜,正是这些复合膜的综合作用,使得润滑脂的摩擦性能得到了进一步的提升。
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    7. 正交实验法优化地沟油制生物柴油产物粗甘油的提纯
    蔡天凤 李会鹏 赵华 廖克俭
    中国炼油与石油化工    2013, 15 (1): 48-53.  
    摘要2055)      PDF(pc) (446KB)(10980)    收藏
    利用化学-物理方法进行地沟油制生物柴油副产物粗甘油的提纯,首先在70℃用85%的H3 PO4循环酸化至PH值为5,然后进行相分离收集富甘油中间相,粗甘油的收率可达81.2%。用0.03 %( w/w)草酸钠在80℃络合反应30分钟,脱杂率可达19.8%,减压蒸馏收集164 -200℃的馏分,然后用2%活性炭在 80℃脱色两次,甘油收率可达98.10%。
    相关文章 | 多维度评价
    8. Research on the impact of the new and renewable energy replacing fossil energy resources under constraint of carbon emissions
    赵立祥 杨楚潇
       2019, 21 (4): 58-67.  
    摘要178)      PDF(pc) (653KB)(1325)    收藏
    For studying new and renewable energy substitutes fossil energy in primary energy consumption and its impact on carbon emissions in confront with economic uncertainties, a multi-sector DSGE model was employed to simulate the dynamic impact on carbon emissions and macroeconomy development. The structural adjustment of energy consumption and the carbon emissions mitigation policy were considered in the model. The simulation results showed that using new and renewable energy instead of fossil energy is the optimal choice for the firms under the constraint of carbon emission mitigation policy. Structure adjustment of energy consumption is the best routine to achieve the dual goal of economic development and carbon emission reduction goal. Unexpected sharp fall in free carbon quota has a negative impact on the economy.
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    9. 板带钢冷轧轧制液及其润滑性能研究
    张旭,王一助1 ,Yao Wenjing,孙建林2 ,王士庭
    中国炼油与石油化工   
    摘要2429)      PDF(pc) (342KB)(6561)    收藏
    本文研究了影响不同类型轧制液稳定性的因素,包括轧制液的HLB值( Hydrophile Lipophile Balance),表面活性剂的用量及比例等。研究发现,表面活性剂的质量分数和HLB值对轧制油和轧制液的稳定性影响明显。通过摩擦磨损实验研究轧制液的摩擦学性能,利用光学显微镜对实验钢球进行了观察;同时,在四辊冷轧试验机上进行了不同轧制液润滑下的冷轧润滑试验。结果表明,乳化液的析油析皂量为2.5%时,其润滑效果可达到最佳。
    相关文章 | 多维度评价
    10. 润滑脂用高碱值烷基苯磺酸钙的研究
    刘依农
    中国炼油与石油化工    2015, 17 (1): 89-95.  
    摘要2244)      PDF(pc) (378KB)(7153)    收藏
    Six kinds of alkylbenzene sulfonic acids are selected to produce sulfonate S1-S6, and sulfonate S3,S4,S6 could be transformed into grease with good performance in comparison with grease produced from commercial sulfonate T106-1 and T106-2. Optimized synthesis conditions of sulfonate S3,S4,S6 are explored by different dosage of methanol,water and type of copromoters, it has been found that good synthesis conditions of sulfonate S3 covers; dosage of methanol of 16%, dosage of water of 4% and dosage of copromoter A of 2%, good synthesis conditions of sulfonate S4 covers;dosage of methanol of 24%, dosage of water of 4% and dosage of copromoter B of 2%, the optimized synthesis conditions of sulfonate S6 covers; dosage of methanol of 8%, dosage of water of 4% and dosage of copromoter B of 2%. Sulfonate S3,S4,S6 produced by optimization conditions exhibit high TBN, good antiwaer property than previous products. Grease G9,G10,G11 produced by new sulfonate S3,S4,S6 exhibit good grease transformation property, low viscosity, improved water stability and high temperature performance.
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    11. Comparison of mass transfer characteristics between countercurrent-flow and crosscurrent-flow rotating packed bed
    祁贵生 郭林雅 刘有智 张栋铭
       2019, 21 (4): 103-111.  
    摘要128)      PDF(pc) (1033KB)(801)    收藏
    Rotating packed bed (RPB), mainly including countercurrent-flow RPB (Counter-RPB) and crosscurrent-flow RPB (Cross-RPB) classified from the perspective of gas-liquid contact style, is a novel process intensification device. A significant measure standard to evaluate performance of RPB is mass transfer effect. In order to contrast the mass transfer characteristics of Counter-RPB and Cross-RPB that with the same size, liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (klae) and effective interfacial area (ae) were measured under identical operation conditions. Meanwhile, comparison of comprehensive mass transfer performance was conducted with ΔP (pressure drop)/klae as the standard. Experimental results indicated that klae and ae increased with increase of liquid spray density q, gas velocity u and high gravity factor β. Furthermore, compared with Cross-RPB, Counter-RPB has higher liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient and slightly larger effective interfacial area. The experimental results of comprehensive mass transfer performance showed that the Counter-RPB had higher ΔP/klae than the Cross-RPB with changes of liquid spray density and high gravity factor, and there exists a turning point at 0.71 m/s accompanied by a variation with gas velocity. Moreover, the relative error of experimental values to calculated values calculated by the correlative expressions of klae was less than 5%. In conclusion, the mass transfer characteristics of RPB are deeply impacted by the manner in which the flows are established and Cross-RPB would have a great potential for industrial scale-up applications.
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    12. AlCl3/TiCl4为催化剂聚合制取聚α烯烃润滑油基础油研究
    于小桥 沈本贤 孙辉 杨兰 刘磊 刘纪昌
    中国炼油与石油化工    2012, 14 (2): 55-59.  
    摘要2106)      PDF(pc) (754KB)(6651)    收藏
    比较研究了α烯烃在AlCl3和AlCl3/TiCl4两种催化剂上的聚合反应性能,研究了1-辛烯、1-癸烯、1-十二烯、模拟混合烯烃(1-辛烯:1-癸烯:1-十二烯的质量比为30:40:30)以及石蜡裂解制备的烯烃共五种原料在AlCl3/TiCl4催化剂上的聚合反应性能。结果表明,AlCl3催化剂更易导致结焦反应的发生。随着原料α烯烃碳数的增加,低聚物的凝点增加且动力粘度下降。与三种单体烯烃相比,以混合烯烃和石蜡裂解制备的烯烃为原料时,低聚物具有更高的动力粘度。而石蜡裂解烯烃产品中的正构烷烃会导致低聚物的凝点升高。流程分析结果表明,以石蜡裂解烯烃为原料合成的低聚物的流程与以1-辛烯和1-癸烯为原料的低聚物的流程较为接近,而混合烯烃和1-十二烯聚合得到的产物具有相近的流程。
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    13. 石油化工中的结晶
    张得江 范瑛琦 谢丽 丁晖殿 王皓
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (2): 1-10.  
    摘要369)      PDF(pc) (734KB)(340)    收藏
    结晶是一种应用广泛的产品精制单元操作。了解石油化工中结晶过程的特点,有助于选择和设计新的结晶工艺。本综述简要介绍了结晶工艺的特点,总结了在石油化工中应用的结晶工艺,讨论了结晶工艺设计中应注意的问题。石油化工工艺中的结晶主要用于聚合物单体的提纯,并且往往是整个精制流程中的一部分。合理的设计一个结晶工艺,需要从全局考虑工艺的安全性、可行性和经济性。
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    14. Intelligent Transformation and Upgrading of Oil Refining & Petrochemical Industries in China: Investigation & Application
    吴青
       2019, 21 (2): 1-9.  
    摘要184)      PDF(pc) (542KB)(1452)    收藏
    The oil refining and petrochemical industry in China has made great achievements after decades of development, and its capacity has already ranked second in the world. However, the refining industry is suffering some challenges, such as severe overcapacity at present, and has entered a new economic normal, in which the technological progress developed rapidly, the request of green and low-carbon development is stricter, the market competition is increasingly fiercer and the profit margins are gradually narrowing. In such a situation, informatization and its new technologies are driving the significant reforming of manufacturing patterns, marketing patterns, management and decision-making patterns. Intelligent development is the inevitable choice for the transformation and upgrading of oil refining & petrochemical industry. It is suggested that the intelligent evaluating model and method should be adopted to enterprise’s intelligentializing transformation and upgrading by laying solid foundation of digital refinery and implementing of digital upgrading.
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    15. 亚高原地区变压精馏分离乙酸乙酯-乙醇的研究
    王克良 李静 连明磊 李志 杜廷召
       2020, 22 (1): 104-110.  
    摘要151)      PDF(pc) (597KB)(761)    收藏
    对亚高原地区乙酸乙酯-乙醇共沸物进行了变压精馏分离工艺(PSD)模拟,低压塔压力设定为云贵高原地区的大气压0.85 atm,高压塔压力设定为3 atm。以年度总费用TAC最小为依据,对各项设计变量如理论塔板数、回流比和进料位置等进行了优化,在此基础上,本文又进行了部分热集成变压精馏(PHIPSD)和完全热集成变压精馏(FHIPSD)的工艺设计。结果表明热集成工艺需要更低的设备成本和能耗成本,相比无热集成工艺,部分热集成变压精馏(PHIPSD)和完全热集成变压精馏(FHIPSD)的年度总费用TAC分别节省27.82 %和28.89 %,完全热集成变压精馏工艺可以有效分离乙酸乙酯—乙醇共沸物,且经济上更合理,本文的研究内容为亚高原地区此类共沸物的分离提供一些技术参考。
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    16. 基于化学反应区的渣油加氢反应动力学创新模型
    张奎 戴立顺 聂红 邵志才 刘涛 邓中活
       2020, 22 (2): 21-29.  
    摘要103)      PDF(pc) (891KB)(570)    收藏
    Based on the characteristics of composition and hydrotreating reactions of residue, new definitions of virtual molecular-group components about CH and CH2 are proposed here. The new reaction, hydrogenation of CH to CH2 (HDCH), can be used to represent the change of C and H with reaction conditions in residue hydrotreating. Meanwhile, by using the lumping approach, the kinetic models of HDCH, HDS, HDN, HDCCR, HDM, HDNi and HDV reactions are established. They are key components of the new kinetic model for residue hydrotreating based on chemical reaction sections. During the process of constructing the kinetic model, the goodness-to-fit (R2) between test data and model data is set as target value, and the parameters of the kinetic model can be calculated accurately. In verification test, the predict content of H, S, N, CCR, M, Ni and V obtained using the kinetic model can match well with the test data.
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    17. 硼酸、磷酸对改善复合钙基润滑脂硬化现象的机理探讨
    郑会 孙洪伟 何懿峰 苏朔 庄敏阳 刘欣阳
       2019, 21 (4): 112-118.  
    摘要180)      PDF(pc) (483KB)(706)    收藏
    In the 1950’s, complex calcium lubricating grease had been widely used. However, due to the hardening problem in the process of storage and use, the production of complex calcium lubricating grease decreases year by year. Domestic and foreign researchers have done a lot of work on its hardening problem, and it has been found that boric acid and phosphoric acid can effectively improve the hardening problem. In this paper, the water absorption test of several calcium salts was carried out, and it was found that calcium 12-hydroxystearate did not absorb water, and calcium acetate, calcium phosphate and calcium borate had different degrees of water absorption. Calcium acetate has the highest water absorption rate, and calcium phosphate and calcium borate have comparable water absorption rates. Using molecular simulation technology, it is found that in the complex calcium grease system, calcium phosphate and calcium borate prefers to combine with water, which inhibits the water absorption of calcium acetate and makes the hardening problem better.
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    18. Real-Time Optimization Model for Continuous Reforming Regenerator
    江树宝 江洪波 厉镇铭 田健辉
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 90-103.  
    摘要100)      PDF(pc) (3090KB)(278)    收藏
    An approach for the simulation and optimization of continuous catalyst-regenerative process of reforming is proposed in this paper. Compared to traditional method such as finite difference method, orthogonal collocation method is less time-consuming and more accurate, which can meet the requirement of real-time optimization (RTO). In this paper, the equation-oriented method combined with the orthogonal collocation method and the finite difference method is adopted to build the RTO model for catalytic reforming regenerator. The orthogonal collocation method was adopted to discrete the differential equations and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm was used to solve the algebraic equations. The rate constants, active energy and reaction order were estimated, with the sum of relative errors between actual value and simulate value as optimization objective function. The model can quickly predict the fields of component concentration, temperature and pressure inside the regenerator under different conditions, as well as real-time optimized conditions for industrial reforming regenerator.
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    19. X型分子筛在吸附中的应用研究进展
    王玉冰 王辉国
       2019, 21 (1): 1-6.  
    摘要230)      PDF(pc) (432KB)(1172)    收藏
    综述了X型分子筛在对二甲苯吸附分离、N2/O2分离等领域中的应用,骨架硅铝比、阳离子种类、含水量等均会对其吸附选择性、吸附容量产生显著影响。作为对二甲苯吸附分离吸附剂的活性组分,X型分子筛的硅铝比为2.2~2.4、阳离子为Ba2+和K+、含水量为4.0%~5.0%时具有较高的对二甲苯吸附选择性。对于N2/O2分离,硅铝比为2.0、阳离子为Li+的X型分子筛表现出较高的N2吸附容量和N2/O2分离系数,通过引入第二种阳离子还可进一步提高其N2/O2分离系数,但是H2O的吸附会显著降低其N2吸附容量。此外,X型分子筛还可用于高纯He的吸附分离,以及CO2、CO、CH4、N2、Ar、H2的选择性吸附。
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    20. 工业管式反应器中乙烷蒸汽裂解过程的建模与优化
    Mohsin Ali 廖祖维 杨遥 孙婧元 蒋斌波 王靖岱 阳永荣
       2020, 22 (4): 117-125.  
    摘要289)      PDF(pc) (639KB)(605)    收藏
    Ethane steam cracking process in an industrial reactor was investigated. A 1-demsional (1D) steady-state model was developed firstly by using an improved molecular reaction scheme and then simulated in Aspen Plus. A comparison of model results with industrial data and previously reported results showed that the model can predict the process kinetics more accurately. In addition, the validated model was used to study the effects of different process variables, including coil outlet temperature (COT), steam-to-ethane ratio and residence time on ethane conversion, ethylene selectivity, products yields and coking rate. Finally, steady-state optimization was conducted to the operation of industrial reactor. The COT and steam-to-ethane ratio were taken as decision variables to maximize the annual operational profit.
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