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    1. Research on the impact of the new and renewable energy replacing fossil energy resources under constraint of carbon emissions
    赵立祥 杨楚潇
       2019, 21 (4): 58-67.  
    摘要183)      PDF(pc) (653KB)(1336)    收藏
    For studying new and renewable energy substitutes fossil energy in primary energy consumption and its impact on carbon emissions in confront with economic uncertainties, a multi-sector DSGE model was employed to simulate the dynamic impact on carbon emissions and macroeconomy development. The structural adjustment of energy consumption and the carbon emissions mitigation policy were considered in the model. The simulation results showed that using new and renewable energy instead of fossil energy is the optimal choice for the firms under the constraint of carbon emission mitigation policy. Structure adjustment of energy consumption is the best routine to achieve the dual goal of economic development and carbon emission reduction goal. Unexpected sharp fall in free carbon quota has a negative impact on the economy.
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    2. Distillation Sequence Optimization Considering Extractive Distillation under Multiple Conditions: A Methanol to Propylene Case Study
    于靓 钱锋 王基铭
       2019, 21 (4): 88-93.  
    摘要117)      PDF(pc) (526KB)(1315)    收藏
    This study provides insights into the distillation sequence optimization of refinery system in a methanol to propylene plant with extractive distillation under multiple conditions. The simulated annealing algorithm (SA) with relative cost function was used to solve a meaningful optimization problem. It was observed that different conditions had differed on the flowsheet. Case study show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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    3. Comparison of mass transfer characteristics between countercurrent-flow and crosscurrent-flow rotating packed bed
    祁贵生 郭林雅 刘有智 张栋铭
       2019, 21 (4): 103-111.  
    摘要132)      PDF(pc) (1033KB)(813)    收藏
    Rotating packed bed (RPB), mainly including countercurrent-flow RPB (Counter-RPB) and crosscurrent-flow RPB (Cross-RPB) classified from the perspective of gas-liquid contact style, is a novel process intensification device. A significant measure standard to evaluate performance of RPB is mass transfer effect. In order to contrast the mass transfer characteristics of Counter-RPB and Cross-RPB that with the same size, liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (klae) and effective interfacial area (ae) were measured under identical operation conditions. Meanwhile, comparison of comprehensive mass transfer performance was conducted with ΔP (pressure drop)/klae as the standard. Experimental results indicated that klae and ae increased with increase of liquid spray density q, gas velocity u and high gravity factor β. Furthermore, compared with Cross-RPB, Counter-RPB has higher liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient and slightly larger effective interfacial area. The experimental results of comprehensive mass transfer performance showed that the Counter-RPB had higher ΔP/klae than the Cross-RPB with changes of liquid spray density and high gravity factor, and there exists a turning point at 0.71 m/s accompanied by a variation with gas velocity. Moreover, the relative error of experimental values to calculated values calculated by the correlative expressions of klae was less than 5%. In conclusion, the mass transfer characteristics of RPB are deeply impacted by the manner in which the flows are established and Cross-RPB would have a great potential for industrial scale-up applications.
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    4. 氧化铝负载金属氧化物脱除NOx及碱吸附
    杨雪 孙敏 刘博 林伟
       2019, 21 (3): 1-9.  
    摘要123)      PDF(pc) (663KB)(782)    收藏
    在NO氧化脱除的过程中,NO的氧化过程至关重要。本工作中,氧化铝负载不同金属作为NO氧化催化剂,氧化产物进行碱液吸收以脱除NOx被仔细的研究。氧化催化剂的活性规律为V<< Ce < Ni < Fe < Co < Mn。NO氧化过程包括金属氧化物晶格得到O和吸附的NO被晶格中的O氧化,由于Mn具有合适的氧化还原电势,对晶格得到O和NO 的氧化过程均有利,因此具有最高的氧化活性。对于所有的M-Al2O3催化剂,NO转化率随反应温度变化均存在峰值,催化剂活性越高,达到最高转化率的反应温度越低。这说明,NO氧化过程是低温动力学控制,高温热力学限制的过程。NOx的脱除率随着NO2/NO比值的增加而增加,当NO2/NO高于3时,脱除率最高达到80%,这也说明NO的完全氧化是不需要的。
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    5. 亚高原地区变压精馏分离乙酸乙酯-乙醇的研究
    王克良 李静 连明磊 李志 杜廷召
       2020, 22 (1): 104-110.  
    摘要155)      PDF(pc) (597KB)(775)    收藏
    对亚高原地区乙酸乙酯-乙醇共沸物进行了变压精馏分离工艺(PSD)模拟,低压塔压力设定为云贵高原地区的大气压0.85 atm,高压塔压力设定为3 atm。以年度总费用TAC最小为依据,对各项设计变量如理论塔板数、回流比和进料位置等进行了优化,在此基础上,本文又进行了部分热集成变压精馏(PHIPSD)和完全热集成变压精馏(FHIPSD)的工艺设计。结果表明热集成工艺需要更低的设备成本和能耗成本,相比无热集成工艺,部分热集成变压精馏(PHIPSD)和完全热集成变压精馏(FHIPSD)的年度总费用TAC分别节省27.82 %和28.89 %,完全热集成变压精馏工艺可以有效分离乙酸乙酯—乙醇共沸物,且经济上更合理,本文的研究内容为亚高原地区此类共沸物的分离提供一些技术参考。
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    6. Effect of ball-milling time on the performance of Ni-Al2O3 catalyst for 1,4-butynediol hydrogenation to produce 1,4-butenediol
    郜宪龙 莫文龙 马凤云 何小强
       2020, 22 (1): 78-86.  
    摘要167)      PDF(pc) (1263KB)(772)    收藏
    Ni-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by mechanochemical method in combination with planetary ball-milling machine. Effect of milling time on the crystal structure, reduction characteristics and catalytic hydrogenation performance of Ni-Al2O3 catalyst for 1,4-Butynediol to produce 1,4-butanediol were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by PSD, EDX, XRD, H2-TPR, BET, TEM, NH3-TPD methods. Results showed that the MCt2.5 catalyst at the ball milling time of 2.5 h performed the smallest particle size of 191.0 nm. Evaluation experiment investigated that the activity of the prepared catalyst increased firstly and then up to the constant value with the extension of ball-milling time. The BYD conversion, BED selectivity and yield of the MCt2.5 catalyst were up to 35.63%, 33.48% and 32.46%, respectively, higher than others. The excellent performance of MCt2.5 sample is mainly related to the following three reasons from characterization results. Firstly, it is of the smallest particle size of 191.0 nm; and then, the surface acid (strong acid) of the catalyst was weaker than other catalysts; the last, the loading amount (23.84 wt.%) of the active component Ni exceeded the theoretical value (20 wt.%).
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    7. 硼酸、磷酸对改善复合钙基润滑脂硬化现象的机理探讨
    郑会 孙洪伟 何懿峰 苏朔 庄敏阳 刘欣阳
       2019, 21 (4): 112-118.  
    摘要188)      PDF(pc) (483KB)(760)    收藏
    In the 1950’s, complex calcium lubricating grease had been widely used. However, due to the hardening problem in the process of storage and use, the production of complex calcium lubricating grease decreases year by year. Domestic and foreign researchers have done a lot of work on its hardening problem, and it has been found that boric acid and phosphoric acid can effectively improve the hardening problem. In this paper, the water absorption test of several calcium salts was carried out, and it was found that calcium 12-hydroxystearate did not absorb water, and calcium acetate, calcium phosphate and calcium borate had different degrees of water absorption. Calcium acetate has the highest water absorption rate, and calcium phosphate and calcium borate have comparable water absorption rates. Using molecular simulation technology, it is found that in the complex calcium grease system, calcium phosphate and calcium borate prefers to combine with water, which inhibits the water absorption of calcium acetate and makes the hardening problem better.
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    8. 高分散的CoWO4或CuWO4提高WO3的光催化性能
    何放 康明亮 宋春冬 杨霞 张静
       2019, 21 (4): 9-20.  
    摘要256)      PDF(pc) (1310KB)(755)    收藏
    本文采用原位浸渍与固相反应结合,成功地合成了CoWO4或CuWO4高度分散在WO3表面的复合CoWO4/WO3或CuWO4/WO3光催化剂。通过XRD,SEM,TEM,EDS,HR-TEM,UV-vis DRS,SPV和活性物种实验研究了CoWO4/WO3和CuWO4/WO3样品的结构,形貌,光物理性质和光催化降解机理。XRD,SEM和TEM结果表明,当CoWO4或CuWO4的负载量较小时,CoWO4或CuWO4高度分散在WO3表面上。但是当CoWO4或CuWO4的负载量增加时,WO3表面的CoWO4或CuWO4颗粒发生明显的团聚。可见光光催化降解RhB的实验结果表明,所有CoWO4/WO3或CuWO4/WO3样品的光催化活性都优于WO3的活性。这主要是因为WO3和CoWO4或CuWO4之间形成的II型异质结能够显著促进光生电子和空穴的分离。此外,CoWO4/WO3和CuWO4/WO3系列样品中,0.2%CoWO4/WO3和0.2%CuWO4/WO3分别显示了最优异的光催化活性,与WO3相比,其光催化活性分别提高了约9.1倍和6.8倍。此外,活性物种实验表明,光催化过程中在0.2%CoWO4/WO3和0.2%CuWO4/WO3催化剂上产生的?OH,h+和?O2?都是光催化降解RhB的活性物种。本文为设计高活性的光催化剂提供了一种思路。
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    9. 采用氙气的鼓泡床流体力学特性研究
    唐晓津
       2019, 21 (3): 90-93.  
    摘要114)      PDF(pc) (446KB)(736)    收藏
    Xenon was used as gas phase to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics in a bubble column. It was found that the flow pattern is mainly in the churn-turbulent flow regime by analysing the relationship between the slip velocity and gas holdup. The influences of operating conditions on the gas holdup and Sauter mean diameter were studied. The experimental results show that the Sauter mean diameter decreases with the increase of energy dissipation rate. A new correlation was developed to predict the Sauter mean diameter with an average error less 15%.
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    10. Effects of recrystallization parameters on the formation of hollow Silicalite-1 zeolite
    谭铖 董卓雅 孙凸 张亚萍 章冠群 夏长久 马延航
       2019, 21 (4): 1-8.  
    摘要152)      PDF(pc) (1464KB)(732)    收藏
    Hollow silicalite-1 zeolite can be readily fabricated by hydrothermally treating the parent silicalite-1 with tetrapropylammonium hydroxide. A dissolution-recrystallization mechanism has been previously proposed to explain the formation of such hollow structures, but detailed information of this formation process still remains unclear. Herein, by tracking the evolvement of the hollow voids and morphology of the silicalite-1 under various treatments using PXRD, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques, we systematically studied the formation process of the hollow structure of silicalite-1 zeolite and discovered that the organic template, water, and treating temperature and time can significantly influence the morphology and size of hollow structure inside silicalite-1 zeolite crystals. Generally, a diluted synthesis medium with high template content under suitable temperature (for instance 170 °C) and extended treatment time favors the formation of single hexagonal hollow structure within sicalite-1 zeolites; while other conditions favor the formation of rounded hollow voids or even multiple-voids within Silicalite-1 zeolites.
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    11. COSMO-SAC模型和密度泛函理论在萃取分离剂分子设计中的应用比较研究
    方静 王一晶 张淑婷 郑雯雯 李浩 李春利
       2019, 21 (3): 103-111.  
    摘要198)      PDF(pc) (521KB)(731)    收藏
    基于离子液体的结构可设计性,通过计算机辅助的方式可以设计出具有高萃取效果的离子液体萃取分离剂。通常使用的是COSMO-SC模型和密度泛函理论,两种方法均具有各自的优点。然而,本文发现对于同一待分离体系COSMO-SAC模型和密度泛函理论所预测的萃取效率排序存在不同。针对这一问题,本文以离子液体萃取脱硫为例通过COSMO-SAC模型筛选出具有高分离效率的六种离子液体,同时使用密度泛函理论在机理的角度上获得了六种离子液体的分离效率,发现两种方法的分离效率确实存在不一致。通过实验并利用高效液相色谱对分离后的含硫化合物进行浓度测定,实验结果表明,六种离子液体的分离效率与密度泛函理论的结果是一致的。最终,在计算原理的角度上说明了两种模型计算结果存在差异的原因。
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    12. [Bmim]Br/FeCl3离子液体脱除页岩油柴油中的氮化物
    刘洁 刘进博 李文深
       2019, 21 (3): 46-52.  
    摘要126)      PDF(pc) (426KB)(714)    收藏
    合成了低粘度的离子液体[Bmim]Br/FeCl3,采用红外光谱对其结构进行表征,并考察其对高氮含量的抚顺页岩油柴油馏分中氮化物的脱除效果。结果表明:[Bmim]Br/FeCl3离子液体具有良好的脱氮性能,在萃取温度30 ℃、剂油质量比1:1、萃取时间30 min、静置时间2h的条件下,[Bmim]Br/FeCl3对柴油馏分中碱氮和总氮的脱除率分别为95.29%和89.76%,对应的柴油馏分中的碱氮和总氮含量分别由5454μg/g,9832μg/g降低到257μg/g,1006μg/g。且该离子液体经回收重复使用4次后,在剂油质量比1:7的条件下,碱氮脱除率仍能达到60%。
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    13. 萃取法脱除模拟富硫油中的噻吩
    沈喜洲 李志强 方柳亚 宋浩 甘锋 沈陟
       2019, 21 (3): 61-67.  
    摘要158)      PDF(pc) (399KB)(697)    收藏
    中国已全面执行国V汽油标准,硫含量不大于10μg/g。传统加氢脱硫方法存在氢耗大、能耗高、噻吩不能有效利用等弊端。萃取脱硫技术因反应条件温和已成为研究热点。萃取脱硫的研究对象主要是催化汽油或模拟汽油,而对于萃取后回收富硫油萃取脱硫的研究在文献中尚未见报道。本文以模拟富硫油为原料,考察了单剂、复配剂、温度及剂油比对脱硫率、油损失率、剂损失率和选择性的影响。实验结果表明:(1)二甲基亚砜(DMSO)和环丁砜(SF)的单级脱硫率分别为53.51%和47.36%,但SF选择性高于DMSO,分别为1.13和1.04。(2)复配剂DMSO+10%MEA一级萃取脱硫率能达到49.59%,选择性系数为1.40,均高于SF,较之DMSO,脱硫率有小幅度的下降,但选择性系数从1.04增加到1.40,增加了25.71%。(3)复配剂50%SF+50%DMSO选择性系数为1.37,此时脱硫率可达50.92%,均高于SF的脱硫率和选择性系数,较DMSO,尽管脱硫率有小幅度的下降,但选择性系数从1.04增加到1.37,增加了31.73%。(4)在1.5:1的最佳溶剂油比下,DMSO+10%MEA的选择性系数和脱硫率略高于50%SF+50%DMSO。
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    14. 节能技术在三氯硅烷精馏提纯工艺中的应用
    郄思远 庞伟伟 赵明 黄哲庆
       2019, 21 (3): 94-102.  
    摘要177)      PDF(pc) (470KB)(692)    收藏
    The trichlorosilane (TCS) purification process consumes a significant amount of energy to achieve the high purity requirement for TCS quality (99.9999%). This work proposed a series of energy saving technology to enhance the TCS purification process, including the conventional process, the conventional process coupled with heat-pump (HP), the multi-effect distillation process, and the dividing-wall columns process. All proposed schemes have been conceptually constructed by Aspen Plus. The design and optimization of the processes have been performed by the sensitivity analysis and the response surface methodology. Moreover, the energy consumption and total annual cost (TAC) for these schemes were discussed. The simulation results show that the TAC of the conventional process coupled with the integrated heat pump can reduce 50.5% of energy consumption as compared with the conventional process; the double-effect and three-effect processes can save 15.6% and 33.8% of energy consumption, respectively; the dividing wall column process and that coupled with the heat pump process can reduce by 22.3% and 48.1% of energy consumption, respectively. It can be found that the operating cost can be saved by using the heat pump technology, while the capital cost increases due to the investment in the compressor, when the processes coupled with the heat pump are used. These results demonstrate that the conventional process coupled with the HP technology has advantages over other distillation schemes for TCS purification in terms of the energy saving and economic effects.
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    15. 酸性聚醚离子液体中异丁烷和异丁烯的烷基化反应
    于凤丽 谷昱龙 刘其春 解从霞
       2019, 21 (3): 29-35.  
    摘要111)      PDF(pc) (487KB)(689)    收藏
    The Br?nsted-acidic polyether ionic liquids (ILs) with different polymerization degrees (n value) were prepared via the reaction of tetramethylguanidine and epoxy ethane, followed by successive reactions with 1,3-propane sultone and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH). The prepared ILs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their thermal stability was determined by thermal gravimetry. The synthesized polyether ILs coupled with TfOH were used to catalyze the alkylation reaction of isobutane and isobutene for the preparation of alkylate gasoline. The polyether ILs could improve the substrate dissolution and promote the separation of the catalyst from the products. The ideal IL (n = 94) was determined. The optimized alkylation reaction conditions covered: a VTfOH / VIL ratio of 0.35, a reaction temperature of 40 °C, a reaction time of 50 min, and a stirring speed of 800 r/min. The conversion of isobutene was 92.4% and the selectivity for the C8-product was 81.6%. Under optimal conditions, the catalyst life was determined and TfOH showed improved cyclic performance in the polyether ILs. After 8 operating cycles, the catalytic activity of the catalyst showed negligible decline.
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    16. 基于流动与传热耦模拟的空冷系统铵盐沉积特性研究
    金浩哲 周俊锋 刘文文 刘骁飞 偶国富
       2019, 21 (4): 94-102.  
    摘要117)      PDF(pc) (1105KB)(675)    收藏
    铵盐腐蚀是加氢反应出物空冷器(REAC)系统的典型失效形式。为了研究REAC系统中铵盐的腐蚀特性,采用混合模型、流体热传递模型和颗粒跟踪模型进行了数值模拟。结果表明,第一排和第二排管内各截面的温度和速度偏差较小。对于颗粒运动轨迹,颗粒的惯性起着重要作用,颗粒越小,在空冷器中沉积越均匀。然而,对于较大的颗粒,它们更倾向于从垂直弯头内侧下落,并在饱和前优先沉积在入口集箱和管道处。在换热器管材中,第二排管材的沉积数量大于第一排管材,高危管材主要集中在中部和右侧区域。在实际运行条件下,颗粒的动力学参数与堵塞位置相吻合。
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    17. 5A分子筛的晶粒尺寸对其乙烯/乙烷吸附分离性能的影响
    边青敏 忻睦迪 徐广通 陈帅 邹亢 史延强
       2019, 21 (4): 36-41.  
    摘要469)      PDF(pc) (623KB)(674)    收藏
    The adsorptive separation of ethylene and ethane exhibits a less energy-intensive -alternative technique with development potential among all separation processes currently. In this approach, zeolite 5A with different particle sizes from 3340 nm to 440 nm was synthesized by in-situ hydrothermal synthesis. The effect of particle size on the adsorptive separation performance of zeolite 5A was investigated. The results show that the accessibility of Ca2+ enhance dramatically with gradually declined particle size. At the initial stage of particle size reduction, the ethylene IAST (Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory) selectivity of zeolite 5A increased up to 5.6 with reduced diffusion resistance and the strengthened π-complexation. With the further shrunk particle size (< 710 nm), the ethylene IAST selectivity of zeolite 5A deteriorate sharply, which stems from competitive adsorption between ethylene and moisture on Ca2+ adsorption sites.
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    18. Effects of microwave torrefaction with Mg(OH)2 on characteristics of bio-oil from co-pyrolysis of straw stalk and soapstock
    王允圃 温平威
       2019, 21 (3): 10-16.  
    摘要113)      PDF(pc) (473KB)(667)    收藏
    This study investigated the effects of torrefaction with Mg(OH)2 on the bio-oil properties obtained from the microwave-assisted catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of straw stalk and soapstock. The effects of torrefaction temperature and residence time on bio-oil yield and composition were discussed. Results showed that torrefaction temperature and residence time remarkably influenced the yield and composition of bio-oil. With increases in temperature and time, the bio-oil yield and the proportion of oxygen-containing compounds decreased while the proportion of aromatic compounds increased. With 20 min of torrefaction reaction at 260 °C, the proportion of oxygen-containing compounds decreased from 29.89 wt% to 16.49 wt%. Meanwhile, Mg(OH)2 could render the deoxidization of torrefaction increasingly noticeable. The proportion of oxygen-containing compounds was minimum (14.41 wt%) when the biomass-to-Mg(OH)2 ratio was 1:1.
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    19. Effects of added HY zeolite on the catalytic behavior of Pt/OMC-HY in the hydrogenation of naphthalene
    吴冰峰 杨丽娜 李剑 杨肖荣 白金 黄一峰
       2019, 21 (3): 17-28.  
    摘要123)      PDF(pc) (904KB)(663)    收藏
    In this work, HY zeolites were embedded in the ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) to prepare a support for a noble metal catalyst Pt/OMC-HY, and the hydrogenation of naphthalene to decalin was carried out over the catalyst. The results showed Pt/OMC-HY-0.14 (mess ratio of HY to phenolic resin oligomer is 0.14) possessed much better catalyst performance than Pt/OMC, which were related to its proper surface acidity, hierarchical pore structure, metal dispersion and the interaction between metal and support. Furthermore, Pt/OMC-HY-0.14 had better sulfur tolerance than Pt/OMC as well. According to the XPS results, it can be concluded that the channels of catalysts were blocked by adsorbed DBTs may be another main cause of deactivation, and the improved sulfur tolerance of Pt/OMC-HY-0.14 was ascribed to its acidity and the shape selectivity of hierarchical pore structure.
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    20. Tribological Properties of Lubricating Oils with triethanolamine borate under Electromagnetic Field
    王鑫 方建华 江泽琦 谷科城 刘坪
       2019, 21 (3): 112-118.  
    摘要100)      PDF(pc) (510KB)(657)    收藏
    Tribological properties of 150SN mineral oil and lubricating oils containing triethanolamine borate (TBE) with and without electromagnetic field impact were evaluated on a modified four-ball tribo-tester. The characteristics of the worn surfaces were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the tribological mechanisms are discussed from the viewpoint of physical effect and chemical effect. The results indicated that the friction coefficients and wear scar diameters (WSDs) lubricated by 150SN mineral oil under electromagnetic field were higher than those without electromagnetism impact. The WSDs of steel balls lubricated by TBE-doped oils under electromagnetic field were smaller than those obtained from non-electromagnetic field, but the friction coefficients were higher than those under non-electromagnetic field. A protective coating consists of wear particles could be formed on the frictional surface due to the physical effect of electromagnetic field on wear debris. The electromagnetic field could facilitate the interaction of elemental boron and nitrogen in TBE with metal interfaces, and contributes to forming tribo-chemical reaction film to reduce friction and wear.
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