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    1. 硅钨酸酸化的新型MIL-101(Cr)催化剂及其对正庚烷异构化反应的催化性能
    张微 刘荣江 马守涛 Dimitriy Kuvshinov 所艳华 汪颖军
    中国炼油与石油化工    2022, 24 (1): 68-80.  
    摘要412)      PDF(pc) (1596KB)(34)    收藏
    0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-101(Cr) metal-acid bifunctional catalysts were prepared by impregnation using STA-MIL-101(Cr) as the support. The synthesized samples were verified to exhibit a typical octahedral structure of MIL-101(Cr) and the pore structure were arranged orderly. The specific surface area of the samples was extremely high and the samples were micro-mesoporous composite materials. Silicotungstic acid could retain its Keggin structure in the 0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-101(Cr) samples and the catalyst possessed moderately strong Br?nsted acid sites. Besides, the dispersion of Pt particles in MIL-101(Cr) was relatively high. n-Heptane isomerization was first used as a probe to test the novel 0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-10(Cr) catalyst. Compared with the conventional silicate catalysts, the catalytic performance of 0.4%Pt/30wt%STA-MIL-101(Cr) was significantly improved with n-heptane conversion of 58.93% and iso-heptane selectivity of 95.68%, respectively, when the reaction time was 2 h at the reaction temperature of 260 oC. The catalyst could still maintain a relatively high catalytic performance during the reaction time of 5 h. Compared with the non-noble metal catalysts, the catalytic efficiency is relatively high. The mechanism model of n-heptane isomerization over 0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-101(Cr) catalyst was established.
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    2. Insights into the Reaction Network and Mechanism of Green Aerobic Oxidative Esterification of Methacrolein over Different Heterogeneous Catalysts
    厉晨豪 夏长久 刘聿嘉 黄开盟 彭欣欣 刘金胜 林民 朱斌 罗一斌 舒兴田
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 1-11.  
    摘要233)      PDF(pc) (848KB)(251)    收藏
    The oxidative esterification of methacrolein (MAL) is an important way to prepare high-valued methyl methacrylate (MMA), but this process is ultra-complex, due to the highly reactivity of both C=O and C=C bonds within MAL. In order to further improve the selectivity of MMA selectivity, the reaction network and mechanisms over different catalysts have been profoundly investigated in this paper. Five kinds of reactions are involved in this process, including (a) hemiacetal/acetal reaction; (b) aerobic oxidation of aldehyde/alcohol; (c) alkoxylation of C=C double bond; (d) Diels-Alder reaction; (e) hydrogenation reaction of double bond/ carbonyl. Among them, Diels-Alder reaction of MAL is noncatalyzed, and Br?nsted acid sites favor promoting hemiacetal/acetal reaction of MAL with methanol, while alkaline sites enhance the alkoxylation of C=C bond with methanol. In particular, by using Pd-based catalysts, several kinds of hydrogenated products are formed, hence with lower MMA selectivity than those of Au-based catalysts. Notably, it is of necessary to match the hemiacetal reaction of MAL with methanol to and aerobic oxidation of hemiacetal, which is relevant with the amount of Br?nsted acid and redox sites. Consequently, this work provides a good guidance for the further design of both catalysts and processes in future.
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    3. 热集成水网络优化设计的最新进展
    张池金 任聪静 廖祖维 孙婧元 王靖岱 阳永荣
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 69-75.  
    摘要188)      PDF(pc) (577KB)(166)    收藏
    It is well known that the process industry is an energy-intense and water-consuming industry and is the main source of industrial water consumption and energy in China. Energy integration and mass integration are important approaches to achieve energy saving and emission reduction in the process industry. Generally, the methods can be classified into two groups: conceptual design methods and mathematical programming methods. The former includes mainly graphical methods based on pinch technology that is operated easily. A feasible solution can be quickly obtained. Conceptual design methods are sequential in nature including targeting and design two steps. The latter is based on superstructure optimization and corresponding algorithm is adopted to solve the model. The trade-offs and connections among the entire network can be established and explored. Multiple factors can be considered and optimized simultaneously by mathematical programming methods. This paper describes the synthesis of heat integrated water allocation networks (HIWAN) based on both conceptual design methods and mathematical programming methods systematically. In addition, the characteristics and shortcomings of the existing research methods are summarized, and the future research direction is prospected.
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    4. 碳包覆镍纳米复合材料在锂硫电池正极中的应用
    杨宇翔 谢婧新 吴耿煌 朱娜 李欢 荣峻峰
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (4): 1-6.  
    摘要165)      PDF(pc) (882KB)(179)    收藏
    锂硫电池有望成为下一代高能量密度储能设备。近年来,“电催化”的概念被引入锂硫电池领域中,一些过渡金属被证明可以催化含硫物质的电化学转化反应。本工作中,比表面积为146 m2/g的碳包覆镍纳米材料对于硫正极的电化学反应具有电催化作用。加入碳包覆镍材料后,Ni@C/G-S电池获得了比G-S电池更好的电化学性能。在此基础上,通过对碳包覆镍的碳壳表面进行化学改性,进一步提高了锂硫电池的可逆比容量和循环稳定性。此外,本文详细研究了碳壳不同元素掺杂对锂硫电池性能的影响。N-Ni@C-G/S电池在0.2 C、0.5 C和1.0 C倍率下实现了更高的比容量,分别为1229 mAh/g、927 mAh/g和830 mAh/g;而B-Ni@C-G/S电池具有最好的循环稳定性。
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    5. 研究三维电催化体系中粒子电极位置对电催化反应效能的影响
    陆楷天 张永刚
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 30-39.  
    摘要152)      PDF(pc) (1621KB)(134)    收藏
    为了探究三维电催化反应器填充粒子的放置位置对电催化反应速率的影响,本文以亚甲基蓝为模拟有机废水,球状石墨颗粒为研究粒子电极,利用COMSOL Multiphysics软件模拟三维电催化反应器内的电势分布。以粒径大小、电势和位置为自变量,以一级反应动力学常数为因变量建立对数回归模型。结合模型预测了反应器不同位置的粒子电极降解有机污染物的效能。模拟结果表明,在三维电催化氧化反应器内粒子电极对污染物降解的反应效能是不均匀的,增加电场强度可以改变粒子电极电催化反应效能的分布,其中越靠近阳极端位置的粒子电极其降解污染物的能力越高。粒子颗粒内部不同位置之间的电催化反应速率的差异较大,按照差异程度可大致分为三个区域并模拟了粒子电极内部不同位置的电催化反应效能分布。
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    6. 表面活性剂对柔性金属有机骨架材料MIL-53(Fe)的孔结构及光催化性能的控制
    张丹 杨萍 张尤华 段林海 孟秀红
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 23-29.  
    摘要129)      PDF(pc) (829KB)(134)    收藏
    提出了一种利用表面活性剂控制柔性金属有机骨架材料MIL-53(Fe)孔道结构的方法。表面活性剂四乙基氢氧化铵(TEAOH)控制MIL-53(Fe)的孔道形式为“闭孔”的形式,而表面活性剂聚环氧乙烷-聚环氧丙烷-聚环氧乙烷(P123)或者聚乙烯醇(PVA)控制MIL-53(Fe)的孔道形式为“开孔”的形式。通过紫外光辐射降解罗丹明B水溶液的方式来考察不同孔道形式的MIL-53(Fe)的光催化性能。结果表明“开孔”的MIL-53(Fe)比“闭孔”的MIL-53(Fe)呈现出更高的光催化活性。由表面活性剂PVA改良的MIL-53(Fe)具有最好的光催化活性,90分钟内讲解了100%的罗丹明B水溶液。
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    7. The Synthesis of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polypropylene Using Supported Ziegler-Natta Catalyst via Combining Internal Electron Donor and Cocatalyst Loaded on
    夏晓琪 李红明 李春漫 苗青 李静 朱峰 黄启谷 义建军 赵众
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 12-22.  
    摘要126)      PDF(pc) (948KB)(130)    收藏
    Due to the development of the new energy industry, polypropylene with ultra-high molecular weight plays a  crucial role for battery isolation membrane. This work investigated the effect of internal electron donor of Ziegler-Natta  catalyst system on the molecular weight of the obtained polypropylene. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and  Canon camera were used to characterize the surface morphologies of catalyst particles and polymer particles, respectively.  Compared with the polypropylene particles featuring a spherical shape, these study results confirmed that the morphology  duplication theory from the catalyst particle to the morphology of polymer particle was exhibited. The gel permeation  chromatography (GPC) results revealed that the obtained polypropylene has a much higher average molecular weight than  those prepared by conventional method. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron  spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the carbonyl oxygen atom on ester group was preferentially bound to Mg and Ti, as  compared to the ether oxygen atom. The XPS results showed that the ratio of Ti3+/Ti4+ could be changed by internal electron  donors. When Ti3+content was nearly 99% in the Ziegler-Natta catalyst system, isotactic polypropylene with an ultra-high  molecular weight of up to 1.42×106 g/mol was obtained by Cat. 3. This result  implied that internal electron donor ID3 could  reduce the β-hydride elimination reaction to further increase the molecular weight of the obtained polymer.
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    8. MOF衍生的高选择性加氢芳香硝基化合物的石墨碳包覆镍催化剂
    吴耿煌 荣峻峰
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 40-49.  
    摘要121)      PDF(pc) (1352KB)(114)    收藏
    针对芳香硝基化合物的催化选择性加氢反应,开发可替代贵金属催化剂的低成本、高效非贵金属催化剂,对于芳香胺类化合物的绿色生产具有重要意义。利用简易、可规模化的制备方法,以镍—2,5-吡啶二羧酸金属有机框架为前驱体,热解制备了氮掺杂石墨碳包覆镍纳米催化材料(Ni@CN)。采用X射线衍射、扫描电镜、透射电镜、元素分析、N2吸脱附等检测手段对Ni@CN的物化性质进行了表征,并对其催化性能进行了评价。结果表明,Ni@CN可在温和条件下(85℃,1.0 MPa H2)高效加氢含取代官能团的芳香硝基化合物生成对应的芳香胺类化合物。对比试验表明,镍纳米颗粒是Ni@CN的加氢活性中心,而石墨碳壳的存在有利于优先吸附硝基官能团。此外,进一步考察了Ni@CN的循环使用性能以及抗硫化物中毒的特性。
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    9. 催化油浆基杂原子掺杂碳球在锂离子电池阳极材料中的应用
    杨光 Dengke Wang Song Chen 张玥 符子剑 Wei Liu
    中国炼油与石油化工    2022, 24 (1): 1-10.  
    摘要118)      PDF(pc) (1988KB)(103)    收藏
    本研究以催化油浆为碳源,采用注入热解法在700-1000℃条件下制备具有良好导电性的杂原子掺杂碳球(CSs)。利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)、拉曼光谱、红外光谱(FT-IR)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)对材料的结构进行表征。探讨了反应条件对CSs形貌的影响并研究了其作为锂离子电池(LIBs)阳极材料的电化学性能。研究结果表明,杂原子掺杂碳球主要含有C、N、O、S四种元素。随着热解温度的升高,CSs粒径减小但石墨化程度提高。作为锂离子电池阳极材料,在50 mA·g-1的电流密度下,CSs具有365 mAh·g-1的比容量及73.8%的初始库仑效率。在50 mA·g-1到 2 A·g-1的电流范围内CSs具有良好的性能,当电流循环回50 mA·g-1时,CSs仍保持347 mAh·g-1的稳定可逆容量。这主要归因于CSs具有合适的杂原子含量和独特的球形结构。这种杂原子掺杂CSs为制备高效锂离子电池阳极材料提供了一种新的选择。
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    10. 双介孔TiO2-PTA/BMMS的合成及其光催化氧化脱硫性能研究
    杨丽娜 张熙 崔莉程 徐美珍 李剑
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 58-68.  
    摘要116)      PDF(pc) (1371KB)(86)    收藏
    为了提高TiO2的光催化氧化脱硫(PODS)活性,利用负载和复合的协同作用,将TiO2与磷钨酸 (PTA)复合,通过两步浸渍法合成制备了TiO2-PTA/BMMS。采用XRD、N2 吸附脱附、XRF、FTIR、UV-vis、SEM、EDS 和 TEM 对催化剂进行了表征;以含二苯并噻吩(DBT)的十二烷溶液为模拟油,评价了催化剂的催化性能。表征结果表明,PTA 的引入为双介孔载体提供更高的表面积和孔体积。在紫外光照射下,TiO2-PTA/BMMS在模拟反应体系中脱硫率可达到 99.6%,脱硫率远高于 TiO2/BMMS 脱硫率。同时对催化剂进行重复使用实验,重复八次后催化活性没有显着下降。
    参考文献 | 相关文章 | 多维度评价
    11. 甲基环己烷催化转化反应对改性工业Y沸石酸性的表征
    侯凯歌 秦波 韩俊杰 杜艳泽 马静红 李瑞丰
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 50-57.  
    摘要109)      PDF(pc) (512KB)(99)    收藏
    以甲基环己烷(MCH)的催化转化反应为模型反应,并结合吡啶吸附红外光谱和羟基红外光谱技术对三种具有不同硅铝比和介孔孔隙的改性工业脱铝Y沸石的酸性(酸量、酸强和酸性点的可接近性)进行了表征研究。通过MCH催化转化反应的反应结果分析,可以得出,MCH的反应活性(总转化率)依赖于Y沸石催化剂表面的酸量, 而TOF值可反映沸石内质子位酸性点的可接近性。MCH催化转化的产品由裂解、芳香烃和异构三类产品构成,其中裂解产物的产率随着沸石微孔中强质子酸位点的浓度的增加而增加;随着Y沸石脱铝程度的增加,沸石内酸量减少,分子的扩散距离缩短从而导致二次反应的几率降低,从而使芳香烃的产率随之降低;同时,裂解产物中C7产物和烯烃/烷烃比率增加。研究结果还显示出,i-C4产物的选择性随脱铝Y沸石在其羟基红外光谱中3600cm-1处的吸收峰强度的增加而增加,即i-C4产物的选择性可反映沸石内强质子酸位点的数目。
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    12. Dechlorination of Crude Oil by Phase Transfer Catalyst in Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction
    顾晋 韩鑫 刘纪昌 黄自豪 邢彪
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (4): 18-28.  
    摘要108)      PDF(pc) (836KB)(119)    收藏
    Dechlorination of crude oil is an effective way to alleviate corrosion in refinery units, and the critical process is the removal of organochlorine which can be efficiently removed through nucleophilic substitution reaction catalyzed by phase transfer. Herein, seven typical chlorinated alkanes were selected as model compounds to study the mechanism of dechlorination of crude oil by phase transfer catalyst in the nucleophilic substitution method, and a new dechlorination reagent using hexamethyl quaternary ammonium hydroxide with two quaternary ammonium groups as phase transfer catalyst, ethylenediamine as nucleophile and ethanol as solvent was developed. The results show that the dechlorinating performances of the dechlorination reagent on the model compounds are as follows: epichlorohydrin > 1,2-dichlorobutane > 1,2-dichloroethane > 1,3-dichloropropane > 2-chloropropane > 1-chlorobutane > chloroisobutane, and the results of the reaction kinetics show that epichlorohydrin with epoxy structure has the lowest activation energy in the process of nucleophilic substitution reaction by the phase transfer catalyst which makes it easier to be removed by the dechlorination reagent. The removal rate of epichlorohydrin can reach up to 99.4%. The optimal dechlorination reagent used ethylenediamine as nucleophile, ethanol as solvent and hexamethyl quaternary ammonium hydroxide as phase transfer catalyst. The dechlorinating rate of the Iranian crude oil reached 71.6 % at the reaction temperature of 95°C, the reaction time of 90 minutes, the dechlorination reagent dosage of 1000 mg/kg and the 6:1 molar ratio of phase transfer reagent and nucleophile. In addition, the mechanism of phase transfer in nucleophilic substitution reaction of chloroalkanes is investigated in the paper.
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    13. 加氢苛刻度对烃类组成和催化裂解产品分布的影响
    邓中活 戴立顺 牛传峰 贾燕子 魏晓丽 蔡新恒
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 112-118.  
    摘要107)      PDF(pc) (868KB)(113)    收藏
    Residue deep hydrotreating (RDHT) process was developed by the Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP) to provide high quality feedstock for deep catalytic cracking (DCC) process. In this research work, the effects of RDHT process and reaction severity on heteroatom removal, hydrogen content increase, hydrocarbon composition improvement, and DCC product yields were studied. It was showed that the RDHT process can effectively reduce heteroatoms, increase hydrogen content and improve the hydrocarbon compositions, which can contribute to an increase of light olefins yield in DCC unit.
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    14. Adsorption and regeneration of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) on coal-based activated carbon by ferric nitrate modification
    金春江 王鲁元
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 137-150.  
    摘要102)      PDF(pc) (1963KB)(72)    收藏
    In this work, heishan coal was used to prepare a series of activated carbon samples (ACs) l via a vapor depositition method. The effects of the weight ratio (Fe(NO3)3:coal ) on the physicochemical properties of the activated carbon were systematically investigated, and the ACS samples were detected by N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, XRD, Raman and FTIR. Furthermore, the adsorption properties for ethyl acetate were tested. The results indicated that as the ratio increasing from 1:8 to 1:2, the specific surface area, total pore volume and micropore volume first increase and then decrease,the specific surface area increased from 560.86 m2/g to 685.90 m2/g and then decreased to 299.56m2/g. The total pore volume and micropore volume increased from 0.29cm3/g, 0.17cm3/g to 0.30cm3/g, 0.22cm3/g, and then decreased to 0.16cm3/g and 0.10cm3/g, respectively. The optimized ratio is ~. in the activation process, The iron ions would be infiltrated into the activated carbon could significantly promote the development of pore structure, especially the pores with pore size between 2.5-3nm, which enhance the adsorption capacity of ethyl acetate. It is worth noting thatthe ACs had the largest specific surface area and total pore volume of 685.90 m2/g and 0.30 cm3/g under the optimized activation (950oC, 20 vol.% CO2 ,the ratio is 1:5), the maximum adsorption capacity of ethyl acetate was 962.62mg/g, and after 7 times of repeated thermal regeneration experiments, the saturated adsorption capacity was still above 90%.
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    15. 改性浒苔固定化微生物制剂的制备及其对柴油的降解性能研究
    薛建良 杨玉萍 李娜娜 安晨烨 蒋晴 成东乐
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 151-160.  
    摘要102)      PDF(pc) (1248KB)(89)    收藏
    为了提高固定化技术在海洋溢油处理中的应用效果,采用十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)为改性剂,采用浸渍法对浒苔进行改性。SDBS改性的浒苔(SDBS-E)作为固定化的吸附载体材料。同时,以海洋降解菌Sp8(Shewanella属)为研究对象。以海藻酸钠为包埋载体,无水氯化钙为交联剂,采用包埋法制备了SDBS-E固定化微生物制剂。与游离菌的降解率(78.87%)相比,SDBS-E固定化微生物对柴油的去除率提高到90.39%。研究了SDBS-E固定化微生物去除柴油的途径,主要包括表面吸附、内吸附和生物降解。早期依靠表面吸附,后期依靠生物降解。SDBS-E固定化微生物对柴油的降解符合准一级降解动力学模型。
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    16. Real-Time Optimization Model for Continuous Reforming Regenerator
    江树宝 江洪波 厉镇铭 田健辉
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 90-103.  
    摘要100)      PDF(pc) (3090KB)(278)    收藏
    An approach for the simulation and optimization of continuous catalyst-regenerative process of reforming is proposed in this paper. Compared to traditional method such as finite difference method, orthogonal collocation method is less time-consuming and more accurate, which can meet the requirement of real-time optimization (RTO). In this paper, the equation-oriented method combined with the orthogonal collocation method and the finite difference method is adopted to build the RTO model for catalytic reforming regenerator. The orthogonal collocation method was adopted to discrete the differential equations and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm was used to solve the algebraic equations. The rate constants, active energy and reaction order were estimated, with the sum of relative errors between actual value and simulate value as optimization objective function. The model can quickly predict the fields of component concentration, temperature and pressure inside the regenerator under different conditions, as well as real-time optimized conditions for industrial reforming regenerator.
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    17. 增强甲苯燃烧催化活性的MnxCo3-xO4微管:氧化还原性能的影响 氧和氧物种
    张晗禹 胡悦 张潇寒 孙梦瑶 刘蕊 金泉 齐健
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (4): 7-17.  
    摘要100)      PDF(pc) (1344KB)(102)    收藏
    Redox property and oxygen species play important role in the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper, a series of MnxCo3-xO4 catalysts with tubular structure were synthesized and applied for the catalytic combustion of toluene. Various characterization technologies were employed to reveal the relationship between the catalytic performance of the MnxCo3-xO4 catalysts and Mn doping. The results of XRD, SEM and N2 adsorption-desorption showed that the Mn doping had significant effects on the structure and morphology of the MnxCo3-xO4 catalysts. The H2-TPR, O2-TPD and XPS results proved that the strong interaction between Co and Mn resulted in the enhanced Olatt mobility, richer active oxygen species, and enhanced redox property in comparison with the pure Co3O4 sample, which were crucial to the improvement of the catalytic activity of Co-Mn catalysts. The best catalyst, Co5-Mn5 sample, exhibited a good and stable activity to catalytically oxidize toluene at low temperatures even in the presence of water vapor, indicating that it is a potential material for the practically catalytic industrialization for the abatement of toluene.
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    18. 柴油碳烟对ZDDP摩擦反应膜的分布、成分及力学性能的影响
    凤维民 宋晖 宋汝鸿 杨炳训 胡献国
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 119-126.  
    摘要86)      PDF(pc) (1425KB)(98)    收藏
    为研究柴油碳烟对ZDDP摩擦反应膜的分布、成分和力学性能的影响。采用HFRR摩擦磨损试验机进行了摩擦磨损试验。采用激光显微镜、SEM/EDS、拉曼光谱、XPS和纳米压痕仪对由ZDDP和碳烟摩擦磨损后的表面进行了分析。结果表明,碳烟会刮离ZDDP摩擦反应膜并嵌入磨损表面,导致膜厚减小和摩膜的不均匀分布。ZDDP摩擦膜中的磷酸盐结构由短链焦磷酸盐向长链偏磷酸盐转变,归于碳烟磨粒磨损引起的接触应力增加,促进了ZDDP的交联。磨损表面的硬度(H)和弹性模量(E)增加,而硬度与弹性模量的比值(H/E)降低,这表明碳烟导致耐磨性降低。
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    19. 生物炭负载纳米零价铁去除水中石油污染物
    覃菲菲 徐文斐 郝博宇 尹凌皓 宋佳宇 张秀霞
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (4): 47-57.  
    摘要83)      PDF(pc) (873KB)(64)    收藏
    在油田开采过程中,化学药剂的大量使用导致原油乳化严重,使得产出液中含有大量难以去除的原油。为了高效、快速且不产生二次污染地处理含油污水,本研究将纳米零价铁负载在菌糠生物炭上,制备了一种新型的铁炭复合材料(SMS-nZVI),并全面评估了其处理高浓度石油污水的的能力。室内模拟除油实验,结果表明,与单独的菌糠生物炭和纳米零价铁相比,SMS-nZVI除油速度快、效果显著。采用SEM,TEM,BET和FTIR对材料的形貌,结构和性能进行了表征,结果表明,采用生物炭做基底材料可以有效地防止纳米零价铁的团聚,增加材料整体比表面积,增强材料吸附能力。将菌糠生物炭基底与其他生物炭基底进行对比发现,菌糠生物炭制备的铁炭复合材料除油效果优于传统的小麦秸秆生物炭。通过对实验条件的优化,得到了具有最佳除油效果的操作工艺:当纳米零价铁与生物炭的质量比为1:5,pH值为4,原油的初始浓度为1000mg·L-1时,水中石油的去除率在5h时可达到95%。将SMS-nZVI暴露在空气中30天进行自然老化处理后,材料仍能保持62%以上的石油去除率,这说明该材料具有良好的稳定性。
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    20. 生产超低硫柴油RTS技术的工艺优化
    葛泮珠 丁石 习远兵 张乐 聂红 李大东
    中国炼油与石油化工    2021, 23 (3): 104-111.  
    摘要82)      PDF(pc) (438KB)(96)    收藏
    The RTS technology can produce ultra-low sulfur diesel at lower costs using available hydrogenation catalyst and device. However, with the increase of the mixing proportion of secondary processed diesel fuel in the feed, the content of nitrogen compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the feed increased, leading to the acceleration of the deactivation rate of the primary catalyst and the shortening of the service cycle. In order to fully understand the reason of catalyst deactivation, the effect of mixing secondary processed diesel fuel oil on the operating stability of the catalyst in the first reactor was investigated in a medium-sized fixed-bed hydrogenation unit. The results showed that the nitrogen compounds mainly affected the initial activity of the catalyst, but had little effect on the stability of the catalyst. The PAHs had little effect on the initial activity of the catalyst, but could significantly accelerate the deactivation of the catalyst. Combined with the analysis of the reason of catalyst deactivation and the study of RTS technology, the direction of RTS technology process optimization was put forward, and the stability of catalyst was improved obviously after process optimization.
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