期刊基本信息
中国炼油与石油化工
美国《科学引文索引(SCI)》收录期刊
主管单位:中国石油化工集团有限公司
主办单位:中国石油化工股份有限公司石油化工科学研究院
编辑出版:《中国炼油与石油化工》编辑部
主  编:汪燮卿 院士
副 主 编:刘鸿洲
ISSN 1008-6234
CN 11-4012/TE
当期目录
2022年 第24卷 第1期    刊出日期:2022-03-30
上一期   
Content
2022, 24(1):  1-02. 
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Content
Scientific Research
催化油浆基杂原子掺杂碳球在锂离子电池阳极材料中的应用
杨光 Dengke Wang Song Chen 张玥 符子剑 Wei Liu
2022, 24(1):  1-10. 
摘要 ( 88 )   PDF (1988KB) ( 73 )  
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本研究以催化油浆为碳源,采用注入热解法在700-1000℃条件下制备具有良好导电性的杂原子掺杂碳球(CSs)。利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)、拉曼光谱、红外光谱(FT-IR)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)对材料的结构进行表征。探讨了反应条件对CSs形貌的影响并研究了其作为锂离子电池(LIBs)阳极材料的电化学性能。研究结果表明,杂原子掺杂碳球主要含有C、N、O、S四种元素。随着热解温度的升高,CSs粒径减小但石墨化程度提高。作为锂离子电池阳极材料,在50 mA·g-1的电流密度下,CSs具有365 mAh·g-1的比容量及73.8%的初始库仑效率。在50 mA·g-1到 2 A·g-1的电流范围内CSs具有良好的性能,当电流循环回50 mA·g-1时,CSs仍保持347 mAh·g-1的稳定可逆容量。这主要归因于CSs具有合适的杂原子含量和独特的球形结构。这种杂原子掺杂CSs为制备高效锂离子电池阳极材料提供了一种新的选择。
Study on viscosity reducing and oil displacement agent for water-flooding heavy oil reservoir
秦冰 赵琳 江建林
2022, 24(1):  11-18. 
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In the process of water-flooding development of heavy oil reservoir, due to the high viscosity and oil-water mobility ratio of heavy oil, there are some problems such as poor fluidity, high residual oil saturation and low recovery efficiency, which seriously restrict the efficient development of heavy oil. The molecular structure characteristics of asphaltene and resin in heavy oil were analyzed. Based on the three most concerned properties of chemical agents, including emulsification performance, interface performance and oil washing performance, three chemical oil displacement agents for heavy oil reservoirs were developed, and the structure of the chemical agents were characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. The performance evaluation of chemical agent and core displacement experiment show that there is no obvious correlation between the properties of chemical agents, including interfacial tension, emulsifying ability and oil washing ability. For heavy oil reservoirs, the emulsification and viscosity reduction performance of chemical agents was more important than oil washing capacity, and oil washing capacity was more important than interface performance. Viscosity reduction performance was the key parameter of oil displacement agent suitable for heavy oil reservoir. The composite binary system of viscosity reducer and polymer had better oil recovery than using viscosity reducer alone.
Electrospinning nanofiber membrane reinforced PVA composite hydrogel with preferable mechanical performance for oil-water separation
程志林
2022, 24(1):  19-26. 
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Nowadays hydrogels have been attracting the massive interest in oil-water separation due to their robust hydrophilicity and fantastic underwater oiliness features. However, the weak toughness and tensile strength shortcomings of hydrogels have thus inhibited their actual applicability. For this reason, we successfully fabricated the electrospun nanofiber membrane-reinforced PVA composite hydrogels. The PVA-PAN composite hydrogel has exhibited the excellent tensile strength and friction performance, separately enhancing 174.2% of the tensile strength, and reducing 20.7% of the friction coefficient and 58.7% of wear volume relative to the neat PVA hydrogel. Furthermore, the pull-out experiments indicated that the PAN nanofiber membrane exerted a stronger interface bonding effect with PVA hydrogel. The oil-water separation evaluation test showed that the separation efficiency reached up to 97.6% for treating the SA-100 lubricating oil/water system.
Role of heating condition in polyethylene behaviors under nitrogen and air atmosphere
Liu Zhao 侯旭 Zhenzhou Ma Bochong Chen Enxian Yuan Tingting Cui
2022, 24(1):  27-35. 
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Recycle of plastic waste is an indisputable means to alleviate both environment and energy crisis. In this work, effects of heating condition on polyethylene behaviors in nitrogen and air were studied. It was observed that polyethylene behavior was a single step in nitrogen, while the multiple steps occurred in air. According to the weight loss and heat flow curves, polyethylene behaviors in air were divided into three regions: low-temperature (<340 °C), middle-temperature (340—380 °C) and high-temperature (> 380 °C) regions. Kinetic analysis revealed that the partial oxidization took the dominance in the low-temperature region, which seldom formed CO and CO2; the combustion took the dominance in the middle-temperature region, which was positive to the formation of CO and CO2; the pyrolysis was initiated and enhanced in the high-temperature region, which inhibited the formation of CO and CO2. According to the kinetic simulation, a synergistic effect between the pyrolysis and combustion was proposed to account for the acceleration of polyethylene conversion. This work may provide useful information about polyethylene behaviors under heating condition, and help to design and optimize plastic waste incineration process.
Study on the low-temperature properties of the asphalt modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crumb rubber (CR)
刘玉梅 郑木莲 刘侠 王崇涛 程勇 王可
2022, 24(1):  36-47. 
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The effect of adding crumb rubber (CR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the low-temperature properties of virgin asphalt was studied. Using the force-ductility test and the bending beam rheometer (BBR) test, the deformation resistance and rheological properties of asphalt samples at low temperatures were evaluated, respectively. Based on the result of BBR test, the creep functions of the Burgers model and the Zener model were used to fit the low-temperature creep characteristics of the asphalt samples. Furthermore, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) test and the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) test were utilized to appraise the low-temperature stability and chemical properties of asphalt samples, respectively. The results showed that CR significantly improved the lowtemperature properties of virgin asphalt, while CNTs had little effect. Moreover, during the degradation of CR, aromatic and aliphatic components were released. In particular, the aliphatic components of CR-modified asphalt were much higher than those of virgin asphalt, which had a significant effect on improving the low-temperature properties of the asphalt. The DSC test results showed that CR enhanced the low-temperature stability of the asphalt, while the addition of CNTs presented a slightly negative effect.
Application of GC-qqqMS/MS in Gasoline Models and Regions Identification
王欣
2022, 24(1):  48-58. 
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Based on GC-qqqMS/MS, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method for characteristic markers in gasolines was established. According to the established method, different models (92#, 95#, 98#) and regions (south, central, northeast, northwest China) of gasoline were studied and analyzed. The results show that the gasolines can be classified by the relative contents of aromatics, naphthalene series, indene and other characteristic substances. On the basis of the high sensitivity and selectivity of GC-qqqMS/MS, the experiment has identified the characteristic substances, and used characteristic-ratios methods and stoichiometric tools to achieve the models and regional differences of gasolines. It is conducive to the identification and classification of ILR in public security in fire cases, and meets the actual handling demand.
Catalyst Research
Fe2O3复合BiOCl的制备及其光催化性能研究
刘晓庆 王紫莎 胡宇星 王海芳
2022, 24(1):  59-67. 
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Fe2O3 was synthesized by the solvothermal method, and the synthesized Fe2O3 was added in the process of preparing BiOCl by hydrolysis, and then Fe2O3/BiOCl photocatalytic materials with different composite ratios were prepared. The optimal Fe2O3/BiOCl (1Fe/50Bi) sample showed a highest photocatalytic efficiency for cationic dyes (Rhodamine B) and anionic dye (methyl orange) degradation irradiated with visible light, as compared with that of a bare BiOCl catalyst. Meanwhile, radical capturing experiments indicated that the photo-induced holes (h+) is the main active species. X-ray powder diffraction and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural and optical properties, which proved that Fe2O3 was successfully composited to the BiOCl surface and effectively reduced the bandgap of BiOCl. More importantly, the optimal 1Fe/50Bi sample shows the highest photocatalytic efficiency for tetracycline (TC) degradation (98%) irradiated with visible light, as compared with that of a bare BiOCl catalyst. Consequently, the Fe2O3/BiOCl photocatalyst have potential applications in environmental purification.
硅钨酸酸化的新型MIL-101(Cr)催化剂及其对正庚烷异构化反应的催化性能
张微 刘荣江 马守涛 Dimitriy Kuvshinov 所艳华 汪颖军
2022, 24(1):  68-80. 
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0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-101(Cr) metal-acid bifunctional catalysts were prepared by impregnation using STA-MIL-101(Cr) as the support. The synthesized samples were verified to exhibit a typical octahedral structure of MIL-101(Cr) and the pore structure were arranged orderly. The specific surface area of the samples was extremely high and the samples were micro-mesoporous composite materials. Silicotungstic acid could retain its Keggin structure in the 0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-101(Cr) samples and the catalyst possessed moderately strong Br?nsted acid sites. Besides, the dispersion of Pt particles in MIL-101(Cr) was relatively high. n-Heptane isomerization was first used as a probe to test the novel 0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-10(Cr) catalyst. Compared with the conventional silicate catalysts, the catalytic performance of 0.4%Pt/30wt%STA-MIL-101(Cr) was significantly improved with n-heptane conversion of 58.93% and iso-heptane selectivity of 95.68%, respectively, when the reaction time was 2 h at the reaction temperature of 260 oC. The catalyst could still maintain a relatively high catalytic performance during the reaction time of 5 h. Compared with the non-noble metal catalysts, the catalytic efficiency is relatively high. The mechanism model of n-heptane isomerization over 0.4%Pt/xSTA-MIL-101(Cr) catalyst was established.
硫掺杂g-C3N4多孔纳米片的制备及其光催化降解性能研究
刘源 赵华 李会鹏 蔡天凤
2022, 24(1):  81-89. 
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Abstract: In this study, sulfur-doped porous g-C3N4 nanosheets (CN-T-U 1.75) have been synthesized successfully by one-step calcination using urea and thiourea as the precursors. CN-T-U 1.75 exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation under visible light irradiation, with the kinetic reaction rate constant of 0.01838 min-1. Analysis of the characterization results showed that CN-T-U 1.75 had a larger specific surface area, and the doping caused a change in the energy band structure. Moreover, the catalytic mechanism analysis shows it could produce two oxidation groups of ?O2- and ?OH to degrade pollutants synergistically.
Process Research
多环芳烃对柴油超深度加氢脱硫催化剂运行稳定性的影响
丁石 葛泮珠 张锐 习远兵 张乐 李大东 聂红
2022, 24(1):  90-99. 
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The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the stability of the hydrogenation catalyst for production of ultra-low sulfur diesel was studied in a pilot plant using Ni-Mo-W/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The mechanisms of catalyst deactivation were analyzed by the methods of elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) technology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results demonstrated that PAHs had little effect on the activity of catalyst at the beginning of operation, during which the reaction temperature was increased by only 1 — 4 ℃. However, the existence of PAHs significantly accelerated the deactivation of catalyst and weakened the stability of catalyst. This phenomenon could be explained by that the catalyst deactivation is not only related to the formation of carbon deposit, but also is closely related to the loss of pore volume and the decrease of Ni-W-S phase ratio after adding PAHs.
固废基活性炭制备及其甲苯吸附机制研究
李志 刘俊
2022, 24(1):  100-110. 
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采用固废资源废弃活性炭为炭源前驱体,加入碱性助剂,经炭活化制备了再生活性炭(RAC, regeneration activatied carbon)样品,并进一步通过高铁酸钾改性处理,最终制备得到高性能VOCs吸附炭。同时通过SEM、RAMAN、FT-IR、XPS、动/静态吸附等表征设备,对改性前后的样品进行系统研究。研究结果表明,经过强氧化剂高铁酸钾改性后的RAC比表面积和孔体积提升了1.4倍,缺陷程度增强,表面含氧官能团含量显著增加。其中高铁酸钾改性24h后的样品对甲苯动态吸附性能最好(375.5mg/g),相比于原始样品RAC动态吸附量(192.8mg/g)增加了一倍;静态吸附测试结果发现RAC-6%K2FeO4+H2SO4-24h最大静态吸附量为796mg/g,表明高铁酸钾改性处理,能够显著增加RAC的VOCs吸附性能。此外,通过连续吸-脱附循环实验测试发现,第五次再生后的样品RAC-6%K2FeO4+H2SO4-24h仍然保持91%的吸附性能,具有良好的循环稳定性,对于工业VOCs废气的高效净化具有重要应用价值。
复配溶剂萃取分离催化裂化油浆影响因素研究
孙昱东
2022, 24(1):  111-116. 
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The influence of solvent formulation, temperature, time and solvent-oil ratio on extract oil yields and aromatics contents were analyzed by four factors and three levels of orthorhombic method with Daqing FCC slurry as feedstock and extraction solvent preparing by N,N-dimethylformamide and anti-extractant. The regressive model of extract oil yields and aromatics contents to solvent formulation, temperature, time and solvent-oil ratio were established. The analysis result by response surface method showed that solvent formulation, temperature and solvent-oil ratio have obvious effect on extraction results and there was interaction between temperature and solvent-oil ratio on aromatics contents when FCC slurry extracted by mixed solvent, but the effect of time was not obvious. The model analysis showed that the optimality conditions for FCC slurry separation by mixed solvent were 2.3 of DMF/ anti-extractant, 62.8℃ of temperature, 3.2 of solvent-oil ratio and 35min of time. The prediction results was well consistent with the verification test.
Environmental Protection
SA-ZnO@ODA-GO@PU 超疏水涂层的抗菌防腐性能
刘芳 孔灿 李炜 姜国飞 王雪尧
2022, 24(1):  117-128. 
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为了解决循环冷却水系统的腐蚀问题,合成了SA-ZnO@ODA-GO@PU超疏水管道防护涂料。涂料经过疏水改性后,涂层的接触角(CA)在150°以上。涂层的抗菌能力对防腐性能至关重要。SA-ZnO@ODA-GO会严重破坏细胞结构,使细胞内容物外流,增加蛋白质的漏出率,使细菌在24小时内无法达到对数生长期。SA-ZnO@ODA-GO@PU涂层SA的缓蚀机理分析表明,疏水改性涂层形成物理屏障,防止水分子进入碳钢。在试样表面,涂层阻止了电荷转移。
Investigation of nitrite production pathway in integrated partial denitrification/anammox process via isotope labelling technique and the relevant microbial communities
李妍喆 盖佳柠 张晓飞 赵东风 国亚东 余庚星 赵朝成 刘芳 赵瑞玉 刘春爽
2022, 24(1):  129-134. 
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本文采用UASB反应器研究了短程反硝化/厌氧氨氧化(PDA)工艺的脱氮性能。在氮负荷率为0.64kg/(m3?d)实现了较高的总氮(TN)去除率(91.97%)。15N同位素标记实验结果显示,厌氧氨氧化菌确实在PDA中执行了将硝酸盐转化为亚硝酸盐的功能,贡献率约为36.3%。Candidatus_Brocadia, Candidatus_Kuenenia 和Thauera分别是厌氧氨氧化和反硝化过程的功能菌株。Thauera 和Candidatus_Brocadia 在高负荷下(0.64kg/(m3?d))对TN去除非常重要。实验结果为PDA工艺的应用提供了理论和技术基础。
Simulation and Optimization
Hydrodynamic Instability Analysis of the Axial Flow Pump in an Ethylene Polymerization Loop Reactor
陆锦 杨遥 孙婧元 黄正梁 阳永荣 王靖岱
2022, 24(1):  135-148. 
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The hydrodynamic instability of the axial flow pump in a loop reactor has long been a troubling issue to be solved in the polyethylene industry due to the lack of a better mechanismic understanding. Generally, the instability of an axial flow pump can be reflected by the fluctuation of the pump head. In this study, the transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is adopted to study the hydrodynamic instability of the axial flow pump used in an ethylene polymerization loop reactor. The results show that the pump head under single liquid phase nearly remains constant while the pump head under slurry phase fluctuates due to the variation of solid volume fraction distribution in the pump. Besides, under the combined effect of the maximum solid volume fraction difference in the pump and the turbulence intensity of the liquid phase, the fluctuation of the pump head under slurry phase increases when the solid volume fraction in the loop reactor increases from 0.10 to 0.29, while the fluctuation decreases, with the solid volume fraction increasing from 0.29 to 0.35. Furthermore, there is a negative correlation between the pump head and the solid volume fraction in the pump; with the increase of solid volume fraction in the loop reactor, the correlation coefficient increases as well. Moreover, a ‘spiral particulate band’ phenomenon is formed in the ascending leg caused by three mechanisms, viz.: the segregation of particles in all bends, the dispersion of particles by the secondary flow in the ascending leg, and the rotational movement of particles in the pump.
Review
Photocatalysts for photocatalytic CO2 reduction:A review
张力中
2022, 24(1):  149-160. 
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Energy crisis and environmental pollution have become vitally severe challenges for the current society. During the circumstances of pursuing carbon peak and carbon neutrality, photocatalytic CO2 reduction will be an essential, necessary and even inevitable development requirement and trend. However, there are some bottlenecks that need to be addressed immediately, such as low quantum efficiency and narrow light absorption range for single photocatalysts. Therefore, efficient and stable visible light driving materials are the core challenge in the field of photocatalytic CO2 conversion. This paper reviewed the photocatalysts used for CO2 reduction classified as metal photocatalysts, non-metal photocatalysts, and MOFs photocatalysts, and the CO2 reduction capacity and mechanism of different photocatalysts were described. In the end, the problems to be solved and the future development of photocatalytic CO2 reduction were summarized.